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after five decades of civil war, colombiaâx80x99s healing begins - plastic sheet

by:Cailong     2019-07-23
after five decades of civil war, colombiaâx80x99s healing begins  -  plastic sheet
âx80x98Run!
Maria Magdalena Padila's brother yelled at her mother.
This is true.
Leave right away!
10-Maria Magdalenayear-
The old name is Mayito and you can see black smoke coming out of the mountains further away, like paramilitary forces, criminals on the right
Wing ideology bent, moving forward in the town of El Salado, her neighbor's house caught fire as they approached.
The mother of Mayito took all the corn out of the sack, so that the chicken had enough food and threw some clothes into it, then climbed up with Mayito and walked along with her two older brothers.
For a whole week, they all hid in the huts of the cambinino family in their fields, with little water and food.
"I remember our children were always quiet during that time," she said now . ".
Even babies don't seem to cry.
From a distance, it is impossible for frightened families to guess the full extent of what happened in El Salado, by rural standards, a prosperous town, at the center of disputed territory between the left
The guerrillas and their paramilitary opponents.
The attack was one of the scariest in Colombia's 50-year brutal ideological war.
Villagers who had time to escape were rounded up in front of the teaching hall at a venue commonly used for pickup football matches.
When their relatives were forced to watch, the victims were accused of sympathizing with the guerrillas, being taken one by one to the center of the battlefield, tortured, ridiculed, armed with knives, and then strangled or shot
Paramilitary men beat those who shouted at the scene.
They raped young women before they killed them.
They raided the community center, and in this area of northern Colombia, music and dance are the core parts of life, and they took the instruments of the local band and celebrated each murder out loud and drunk.
The killings in El Salado and nearby towns lasted six days from February 16-21, 2000.
At the end, 66 people were killed.
The child, meito, came home with his family and retreated from the burning house and lingering smell of death.
This time, none of her immediate family members died, but the family has been traumatized: mayito's father was murdered a few years ago and accused of being a sympath of the guerrilla group.
When other survivors rushed to bury their relatives in four mass graves, her mother packed up her family belongings.
During the week, 4,000 residents of all El salado homes fled their homes, when more than 2 million internally displaced Colombian people were robbed of their families, homes and livelihoods, their peace.
The story is different from the other horror and heartbreaking events in Colombia, where the people of El Salado are back.
To stubbornly return to this land, which is unlikely to achieve its promise, the salaros withdrew their town two years after the killing, clearing the tropical vines that climbed the road and climbed the walls, paint the rustic rooms in each empty room and replant the fields that provided tolerable income not long ago.
The children did not have a school, but by the age of 12, Mayito padiilla decided to start a school by herself, including literacy training and multiplication forms, and her 37 students reviewed their experiences in the history course, so as not to forget the terrible recent events.
Today, El Salado and Colombia are changing their grim traditions.
The girl now known as "Miss meito" works through a degree in early childhood education and becomes the head of community relations in her hometown.
In the half-century war, after four years of hard negotiations, the country's oldest guerrilla group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, at the initiative of Spain, the last arms were handed over to a United Nations Group in June 2017.
By that time, the whole country had been reshaped by violence.
Now, lasting peace must be won in an inch.
El Salado, a leader in reconstruction, has given hope that the country will heal as well.
The reality is that in the two centuries since the independence of Spain, there have been few violent conflicts in Colombia.
Some would argue that the recent cycle of bloodshed began in April 9, 1948, when Jorge Ellis Guitan, a popular leader of the traditional Liberal Party, was assassinated.
The murder sparked deadly riots in the capital Bogota.
Over the past year, there has been a wave of partisan killings in the countryside.
But long before that, members of the Conservative Party had been slaughtering liberals, and often so, and vice versa.
In 1957, the agreement between the two sides to end the violence by taking turns to govern led to relative peace for about a decade, and in the city, few people noticed dozens of free peasant families, they were radical by a powerful Communist organizer.
Including the army, the current president and a chief conservative senator, he accused farmers of wanting to establish an independent republic in Colombia.
In a military operation in 1964, thousands of soldiers occupied the Freedom Group at the foot of the Colombian foothills, a small group with a sharp increase in numbers.
More radical as a result of the bombing, farmers adopted the name of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia and launched a 52-year guerrilla war against the country.
A small group of radical farmers without weapons to talk about, and without proper military training, few recruited neighbors and nearby villagers until their numbers exceed the most fanciful expectations.
Then, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia broke out again in the 1980 s, thanks to the drug war that began in the United States, mainly in Mexico and the Andean countries, where coca grew.
The leaves of the Bush coca are medicinal and sacred to the native inhabitants of the Andes.
They are also the core ingredient of cocaine, a chemical compound developed in Germany as early as in the medium term19th century.
Hundreds of years later, when the cultivation of coca was declared a criminal activity, Andean farmers simply moved the strongest cash crop to date to the more remote parts of Colombia's vast hinterland.
After all, some bloodthirsty drug mafia or others are always willing to pay the highest dollar for this useless plant. Given never
The drug war ended demand for recreational drugs from New York to Shanghai, only forcing prices to rise.
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia have discovered an opportunity and stepped in.
In order to protect farmers from ruthless human traffickers and ensure the standard price of the coca leaf they harvest, the FARC imposed an export tax on processed coca paste per kilogram that leaves its territory under control.
Soon, the Army of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia had standardized uniforms and boots.
Combat Weapons also
Their numbers are estimated to have increased to 20,000.
The guerrillas are filled with money and the leadership inevitably becomes corrupt, evil and eager for more.
They extorted, kidnapped and detonated the bomb. there was little revolutionary.
As the FARC guerrillas have attracted the attention of paramilitary groups rising to fight them, they have brought great pain to the farmers they live in.
The paramilitary killer in El Salado accused the villagers of sympathizing with the FARC, which had reached a military corner and finally signed a peace agreement with the Colombian government in November 24, 2016, the weapons were handed over on last June.
From the guagira desert of the peninsula to the Ramos heights of the Andes, where one can walk in the clouds with one's head;
From the tropical plains along the Atlantic Ocean to the deep green jungle of the Pacific Ocean, this is an amazing country with only 48 million people occupying almost twice as much territory as France.
Colombia has more hummingbirds, butterflies, orchids, frogs and so on than anywhere else on Earth.
Many people here are very poor, and it is especially clear if you travel from modern cities to the Pacific region of Joko, the poor Indians and Africans of Joko
Colombia's population is still sailing many wide rivers in canoes because there are few roads.
Tourists to the resort of Cartagena are rarely told of a remote area named after Nelson Mandela, which has about 40,000 people, mainly from violent incidents such as Joko and El Salado, living in shameful circumstances
Flying over Jade-
The green country can see wide and sparkling rivers everywhere;
Steep valleys spread across coffee farms;
Lush pastures spread like velvet cloaks to the Amazon.
What you can't see is Mines.
When a round of peace talks broke down in early 2000, the tide of the war turned to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, which technically strengthened the use of improvised explosive devices, because their hand-made is holding back the army's fanatic pursuit.
They are painful souvenirs of guerrilla fighting, and eradicating them is an important task facing the government.
Normally a camper is stepping on a mine planted a long time ago to get a child blinded by shrapnel, or a farmer loses a leg or an arm and never again
According to HALO Trust, a global mine
Colombia, which has been behind Afghanistan, has become the world's second largest mine victim;
Mines have killed or injured 11,400 Colombian people since 1990.
Arvaro Jimenez, a mine expert, told me that mines do more harm to campers than to the army.
Jimenez himself is also a former guerrilla.
The organization he belongs to, M-
Handing over weapons to the government in 19,1990).
18 years ago, he became the head of the Colombian anti-mine campaign, which caused and sponsored injuries --
A plan to cut guerrilla forces in the minefield.
Mines cause a lot of fear, he said.
Like to be afraid to venture out after dark, take the child to school to find a doctor if someone is sick.
Usually, campers maintain a harmonious relationship with the surrounding environment.
Mines have destroyed all this.
Jimenez advised me to travel to the province of Nariño, a rolling Highland, pieced together by soft green fields, and then plunged head into the tropical area of the Pacific coastline.
In Ricaurte, a remote town in Colombia, like most of the cities in Colombia, it was sea of people, not polite, roaring on a motorcycle, and I was introduced to Christian Marin, A member of the ABBA people living in a jungle reserve not far away.
With a slight cinnamon and a little tripe, Marin is one of the youngest leaders elected by Ava to resolve disputes and deal with the outside world.
Marin speaks in a low voice and relies on understatement, so it is difficult to understand the damage suffered by his community without taking rude inquiries, only in one such interrogation, he told me about an army --
Guerrilla warfare is near his own family compound, and as usual neither side has won.
The legacy of political instability, land disputes and violent conflicts triggered by the drug trade has plagued Colombia since the 1960 s.
Fighting between government forces and guerrillas such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia)
Criminals broke out in rural areas and spread across the country. URBAN-
Artificial light in the countryside illuminates roads, industries and cities where the existence of the state is strong.
Elsewhere, instability and violations may be widespread.
In Colombia, 2016 of coca plants continued to subsidize farmers in the evening, turning to legitimate crops.
The United Nations estimates that cocaine production in Colombia hit a record high in 2016.
100 mi100 kmFARC WITHDRAWSFor the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia have controlled the rural Colombia of muchof for more than ten years.
Now, most fighters have deployed weapons at designated locations, leaving a power vacuum in the countryside.
Revolutionary Armed Forces in Colombia
2010 The 2016 Colombian people outside of the Centre for disarmament 2016 bogot EXTERNAL are refugees from neighbouring countries, mainly in Puerto ezuela and Ecuador.
Many people are returning now.
Venezuela has been displaced for decades at 17, 9, 20, 15, 614costarica2, 335ecubrazil101, 1611, 288peru591Decades. Internally displaced persons in Colombia
For years, they have been crowded in the city, far from the troubled rural areas.
Total number of internally displaced persons: 7,410, 8162002 new internally displaced persons per year and 678 active peace processes. The Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, 2012-20172012, held formal peace talks in Cuba,month cease-
The fire was announced.
2013 parties agreed on the first of the five agenda items: land reform agreements to address rural inequalities.
2016 while a historic peace agreement has been signed, there is still controversy.
Armed 2017 FARC rebels
More than 2016 Colombian people are refugees from neighboring countries, mainly in Venezuela and Ecuador.
Many people are returning now.
NorthAmericaSanta MartaBarranquillavenezuelaCartagena171 920 costaricaREFUGEESEl saladosincejopanama canal, 335Monter aiméadéing more than 11,400 people have since been killed since 1990.
Minefield remains an obstacle to development and resettlement.
The legacy of Panama Pacific 15, 614c'cutabucaramedell 'n, political instability, land disputes and the drug trade have plagued Colombia since the 1960 generation.
Fighting between government forces, guerrillas, such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia)
Criminal gangs broke out in rural areas and spread throughout the country.
∮ Pereirabogot à ibagu éAvicencioarmeniacalineivatumacourban-
Artificial light in the countryside illuminates roads, industries and cities where the existence of the state is strong.
Elsewhere, instability and violations may be widespread.
PastobrazilRicaurte1, 288 Columbia 206ecuador101, 161 lights in the countryside dominated by the Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces at nightLessMoreperu591Coca cultivationmorelesssouthamerica arc WITHDRAWS100 miFor more than ten years.
Now, most fighters have been disarm at designated locations, leaving a power vacuum in the countryside.
For farmers waiting for subsidies to switch to legitimate crops, 100 kmbogot cash crops are still lucky to grow coca.
According to United Nations estimates, cocaine production in Colombia hit a record high in 2016.
Revolutionary Armed Forces in Colombia
2010 The disarmament Centre, the peace process has been interrupted for decades: the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, 2012-2017 the total number of internally displaced persons in Colombia has increased to more than 7 million, one of the biggest crises in the world.
They have been crowded in the city for many years, far from the countryside.
New internally displaced persons in 2002, 6782012 official peace talks in Cuba, and twomonth cease-
The fire was announced.
The parties to the positive peace process agreed on the first of the five agenda items: a land reform agreement to address rural inequality.
84,151 internally displaced persons in 8352016 people signed the historic of peace agreement but still controversial.
1984: 60,039 cm 2017 cm the FARC rebels laid down their weapons.
1985 '90' 95 2000 '10' 152016: 7,410,816 'as usual, marin said that the guerrillas had mined mines when they retreated.
So people decided not to leave their home.
They were scared.
Surrounded by fear, unable to work in their fields or go to the market to find supplies, they have not ventured out of their yard for months and suffer as a result.
It was not until I asked that Marin mentioned that he himself had lost relatives of four mines.
It seems to me that he can't be as optimistic as a tree.
We spoke under the shade of a green banyan tree in a public square, which was a humble municipal building.
Marin, who worked as an Ava representative in Ricaurte, was recruited for human rights training.
He shrugged his shoulders and said it was a political thing they wanted to do.
The Norwegian is giving money, which is a budget.
Nevertheless, he acknowledged that the effort was helping citizens of Ava to obtain legal documents and to file complaints about human rights violations.
As part of the agreement signed between the government and the FARC, a joint project with army personnel and demobilized guerrillas is beginning the slow and dangerous process of eliminating mines.
Current battle
The era of freedom is also a big advantage, he said: for Ava children, they can now get at least unqualified school education.
In my school, I was always in the back because I spent a lot of time hiding under the mattress to avoid fighting, says Marin.
In the booming cities, one may forget that the war is going on, with exquisite restaurants, art galleries and designer buildings.
Even now that foreign investment is shifting from a trickle of trickle to human traffic, traffic jams have become a worldwide problem.
It is hard to remember that this is a moderate economy, a government with a serious budget deficit.
In Bogota, I had a conversation with a well-known Colombian senator, Antonio Navarro Wolff, in a shabby office with a crowded waiting room, almost not big enough for a hermit, and the telephone system looks like it was set up in 1980.
Navarro Wolff used to be governor of Nariño, given that he was a former M-
Guerrilla groups.
His team was successfully demobilized and he learned about many peace talks held over the years.
I asked him which post he was.
Given the budget and staffing constraints, the government should first assume the task of conflict: to return the land of farmers expelled from the camp by paramilitary personnel?
Education and re-socialization of about 7,000 demobilized guerrillas?
The excavation and identification of Columbus thousands of "disappeared "? Mine clearing?
Navarro Wolff replied that there was only one of the principal's most pressing questions.
Who will occupy the land abandoned by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia?
Is it a government or a new criminal gang?
Guerrillas and paramilitary personnel fight to control remote areas that are ideal for the cultivation of coca and opium poppy for the manufacture of heroin.
Navarro Wolf says the guerrillas may go, but the land is still there.
The same is true of the illegal drug trade and the drug war.
What we need now is the police.
After the conflict, the task will no longer be to kill the offender, but to ensure that there are no new offenders.
We need a security force for that, he explained, but now we have only 10,000 police officers in rural areas.
In the great irony of this complex war, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia may be cheaper of two evils compared to the cost of controlling the brutal new drug --
Trafficking gangs occupying areas where guerrillas and paramilitary personnel once fought to control the territory.
The government estimates that 5% of guerrilla forces refuse to lay down their arms and may eventually enter the ranks of society. called bacrim (
Short for band crime).
Today, the gangs are mainly involved in the drug trade, but they are also slowly taking over old guerrilla and paramilitary groups, including extortion, kidnapping and human trafficking.
As Marin told me in the little square in Ricaurte, at least with the guerrillas, they have a central command with which they can negotiate, such as curfew time.
This is not the case with the new criminal gang.
They just say "plomo square", "silver" or "lead", which means bribes or bullets Navarro said.
Anyone with a brain will say, oh, I will take the silver because the lead is too heavy.
Now that there is peace, how will 23% Colombian people living in the countryside live?
For half a century, more than 7 million people left their homes in rural areas most affected by guerrilla and paramilitary violence.
The focus of the government's reconstruction and compensation efforts is on these areas.
17 years after the massacre, El Salado was a great place to find the first result.
Walking inland from the Caribbean coast for a few hours, the town is still worth a look: a canyon runs through the center and an unrepaired water pipe creates a water supply problem during my visit.
Yet for a group of exiled residents, nostalgia for their place of birth is enough to bring them together, 2,000, to take it back, ignoring the threat of death and their own terrible memories.
Seventeen years ago, Luis Torres led the return campaign, and when the first batch of 130 people agreed to return to El Salado, he raised funds to hire the truck that brought them home.
Articulate 71-year-
He had a rough face and was amazingly energetic, and when I visited the main intermediary between the town and the Semana Foundation, he was hired for years, it coordinated efforts to restore El Salado.
At first, Torres had to negotiate with a FARC detachment to allow residents to relocate their towns, which then took control of the area.
He then spent three months in prison, charged with rebellion, and then spent a long time in exile in the Netherlands, Switzerland and Spain before he felt safe to return.
Now, when he showed me the sights of his hometown, he was filled with a sense of accomplishment: a mobile tower that eventually allowed salaros to communicate with the outside world, a kindergarten, hundreds of new homes, some store groceries, a gospel church, were prepared for the poorest families in the community, and the streets were lively again. The children jumped and the neighbors waved hello.
Torres remembers that when people came back here for the first time, their fears were completely awake.
It is a shame that they chase them.
In the city where they said we had to leave their home, they must have done something.
No one is willing to hire a displaced person.
As far as we are concerned, we have a distrust and fear that will not disappear.
It was not until recently that people began to open their doors.
Depending on who is evaluating Torres's improvement, or, say, people can see heroic achievements, or a modest recovery based on millions of dollars in donations, the most basic problems in many towns, including water, work and education, were not solved.
El Salado is just one of thousands of small towns in the Channel.
It made the most significant progress just two years ago: 12-
A mile-long paved road will reduce the distance to the nearest major towns and highways to 30 minutes, down from 4 hours depending on the rain.
Maybe the transformation of El Salado has made it a community, a health care service, without enough water, sewage, education, and too many farmers have a lack of ownership of the land they may have occupied for generations.
Luis Torres has an ultimate dream: he sees himself standing in the crowd and clapping for a technical school in his hometown, this will train the kids who are now so aimlessly walking around on motorcycles looking for something better than dirt --poor life.
He said I would die peacefully once I saw the ribbon cut.
In the heart of new Colombia, the former guerrillas who played such a big role in creating old Colombia have a bigger dream.
I want to create equality not only for ourselves, but for all the people of Colombia, why not?
"For the world," said a young man named Alex.
We sat down in a overlook and saw a vast valley, green fields and golden lights.
Behind us is a bald one.
Bone communal kitchen, around us, 26 have built a new settlement from scratch in the past six months, aiming to accommodate about 300 demobilized guerrillas.
Settlement 297-
An agreement between the guerrilla leaders and the government was reached through hard negotiations.
They should contribute to the smooth transition to modern society.
Now about 7,000 fighters have put down their weapons, their daily consumer society.
Although each guerrilla or guerrilla couple's dormitory has a wallboard room, the toilet and shower room opposite is very happy with his new environment.
At the age of 25, he was painfully shy to strangers, completely ignorant of the capitalist way, and looked and acted more like a teenager, as if when he left home at the age of 15 to join the FARC, his real life had stopped.
He explained that there was no money, no job, no chance to learn. My family is very poor.
He said that he had never regretted it, but someone wanted to know how much his situation had improved: he had never slept under the eaves in his 10 years as a guerrilla fighter, have seen family or used money
"Looking back on the past, it was painful and difficult for many years," he said . ".
Sleeping is most often on a hammock protected by a plastic sheet, sleeping at six every day, so as not to talk, giggle, lit cigarettes reveal the group's position.
The radio is not allowed because it is easy for the penetrating person to put the microchip locator in it.
Cross with hundreds of countries
The guerrillas rely on rice as their main food.
On the first day of training, Alex said his team ambushed a military base and he saw three of his young comrades dead.
He says one feels the biggest change in calm.
Then there is the dormitory: Now each of us has the opportunity to organize our small room as we wish.
Our sleeping time has changed because some people like to watch TV and some like to watch football games.
He was concerned that the government's monthly subsidy of about $300 per demobilized soldier would be difficult to manage properly, but the money was deposited in a nearby bank.
He said, "since we are civilians, we have to learn to manage ourselves, and we know that you need money to do everything there.
If the government is bolder and richer, or if it is hindered by strong opposition to the peace agreement in Congress and among the people of Colombia, every ex-combatants will receive more money, enough to set up an arepa booth on the side of the road, or finish school, or otherwise help ensure that a person re-enters society from a place equal to Mars, with only clothes on his back, will find legitimacy more attractive than the work of a criminal band hired now.
Monthly subsidies end in July 20, as well as the security and protection of demobilized territories in the United Nations and the National Police.
Asking Alex, he is still adapting to the basic conditions of his new life, how he sees the future after this transition period, which is almost unfair, but it is clear that this is a constant discussion between him and his partners
"My biggest concern is safety," he said immediately . ". In the mid-
1980 failed negotiations with the FARC, which included a truce, amnesty and an opportunity to establish a political party known as the Patriotic Union.
Over the past decade, thousands of party militants have been assassinated, most of them in broad daylight and in public.
Now the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia are transforming into a new political party that should guide the former
Alex believes his years of struggle have made it possible for Colombia.
When he spoke in a voice that might have been considered a hero, Alex pondered over the future of collective effort and collective joy, but caught off guard, he dreams loudly of the small farm he wants the FARC leader to arrange for him, as well as the nursing degree or baking certificate that others in his team crave.
He also wants to study, finish primary school and get a high school diploma. On the farm? He hesitates.
Life is complicated and uncertain for everyone these days, but who knows?
It may eventually be solved.
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