breakthrough in 4π ion emission mechanism understanding in plasma focus devices - pc sheet
Ion emission angle distribution mechanism in plasma focusing devices (PFD)
Due to the lack of effective wide range development and understanding, it has not been well developed yet
The angle ion distribution image detection system of PFD space is described in detail.
The current belief is that, within a small solid angle, the acceleration of the ion points upwards from the "top of the anode" to the front.
The research has made a breakthrough, according to mega. size position-
After the discovery of 4 π ion emission of "anode top" in PFD space, a sensitive polycarbonate ion image detection system was developed
During the axial acceleration of the plasma sheath before the radial phase, away from the ions in the "anode cathode array.
These two ion emission focal mechanisms are represented as "ion cathode shadows" consisting of "point source" and "line source" respectively. size detectors.
We believe that the invention and discovery here will open up new horizons for advanced ion emission research to better understand the mechanism, and in particular will promote the efficient application of PFDs in medicine, science and technology.
Amirkabir plasma focusing device (PFD)
As used in this study, is a mothertype 3. 5u2009kJ device. A Mather-
The Type device is a compact device with two concentric cylindrical electrodes in the vacuum chamber.
In order to operate the device, the chamber is first evacuated to low pressure in order of 10 mbar or less, and then filled with known gases (such as hydrogen, tritium, helium), nitrogen, oxygen, etc.
Under the known pressure of several mbar
The PFD used in this study is an upright cylinder with an inner diameter of 26 cm, an inner diameter of 38 cm, and an inner diameter of 81 cm ().
It has a "anode cathode array" assembly in the center, which consists of a central hollow copper cylindrical anode (13.
Length 3 cm belt 2. 0u2009cm diameter)
And six copper cathode (
Length 13 cm with 0. 9u2009cm diameter)()
Placed on a copper base of 1 cm thick.
A Pyrex glass tube with an effective length of 48mm acts as an insulating sleeve.
In the study carried out, the chamber vacuum was kept at about 10 mbar.
A Rogoski coil is the signal used to record.
The unit is charged by a 40 μF capacitor up to 12 kV.
The total external inductance of the device is 15 nh.
In PFD, the gas pressure is maintained at 7 in order to expose the sps c detector.
5 mb of helium.
However, in the experimental environment-
When the rectangular msp c detector is wrapped and attached to the cathode, a higher pressure of 20 mbar is required to trigger a successful contraction.
In this study, helium was the main gas, but other gases, such as hydrogen, tritium, nitrogen and neon gas, were also used to verify observations of near 4 π ion emission, and the formation of "ICS" on the upcoming sps c detector.
A schematic diagram of the PFD is shown, which also includes a circular and rectangular sps c detector and a small PC detector placed at the designated position of the PFD ground base;
In the 4 π PFD space, ions are emitted and distributed from the "top of the anode" up, down and in all directions;
Ions escape radially from the "anode cathode array.
As discussed under each experimental device, other special detector arrangements have also been made
In the above ().
When heavy charged particles like helium, nitrogen, or neon ions hit a polymer orbital detector like polycarbonate (PC)
It breaks down the polymer bond into free radicals along its trajectory to form a potential trajectory.
The potential trajectory on this polymer detector can be easily amplified by chemical etching or through the ECE method under optimized conditions to the point that can be observed by the naked eye.
In this study, PC detectors of different sizes, especially in MS-
By applying 50 hz-ECE roomHV ECE method.
The ion trajectory Image sps c detection and the ECE processing system are composed of several parts and steps, including: the ion image PC detector (s)
, Detector exposed to heavy metal ions in PFD, MS-
Ece Chamber of Commerce system
50 hz-ECE processing conditions
Determination of ion injection and energy distribution in high-voltage power generation systems.
The ion orbital image detectors used in this study are basically PCTDs with the required size and thickness depending on the application; i. e.
From small to large-
Size detectors, first applied to PFDs in these studies.
The ion image sps c detector is basically a PC slice cut from a larger PC sheet with a thickness of 250, 500, 750 or 1000 u2009 μm (
Covered on both sides to prevent scratches)
It is available at low cost in any ordinary plastic market.
The PCTDs thickness used in these studies was 250 u2009 μm.
They are also used as circular msp c detectors (
26 cm diameter = 5531 cm area, same size as PFD cylinder base)
Or a rectangular sps c detector (
38 cm × 81 cm = 3078, almost equal to the inner wall area of the PFD cylinder)
Bend around the wall of the PFD cylinder to make a wall detector;
Two rectangular sps c cathode detectors of different sizes21u2009cmu2009×u200931u2009cm (
When wrapping the cathode tightly with 4.
5 cm distance from anode Center)
And 21 cm × 51 cm (
When placed at a distance of 3 cm from the cathode of 7.
5 cm distance from anode Center)
As a "cathode detector ".
The small size 3 cmcm × 3 cm PC detector is placed on the PFD ground base area between the anode and cathode and between the cathode and the PFD wall.
These PC detectors are also shown in the PFD space and installed in the PFD space.
In a pinch shot, six circular msp c detectors are exposed at a distance of 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 or 21 from the "top of the anode" to the helium ion each time, as shown in and.
If the system or time is not allowed to continue, the time interval between different lenses is usually one hour or 24 hours occasionally.
However, since the induction ion orbit of the PC detector does not decline, this time interval does not cause the fading of the induction orbit even during a longer time interval.
When placed at a distance of 6, 15 or 21 cm from the "top of the anode", each rectangular wall msp c detector is exposed at the same time as the circular detector.
Small detectors are also placed on the PFD ground base, which is carried out simultaneously with the exposure of other sps detectors.
Through this arrangement, all detectors installed in the PFD space have been registered for single emission and ions distributed in the PFD space, as shown in the figure above.
Position of detector
Sensitive and can simply display ion density levels at any point in PFD space after sufficient MS-
Even in the absence of help, ECE will deal with it. A MS-
The ECE chamber system consists of two equal MS transparent plexiglass semi-
Chamber that can be assembled together by many bolts and wing nuts.
The sps c detector can be kept tight between two and a half
Chamber consisting of two large rubber washers for isolating twosemi-
Rooms for each other. The semi-
The chamber is full of optimized etchant.
Apply high pressure on two half planes
Chamber through two stainless steel electrodes at 50 hz-HV generator.
Single or multiple design features
The ECE Chamber of Commerce system and its operation are recorded in detail in the literature.
For this study, MS-
Using organic glass (2u2009cm thick)
4 different designs; a circular MS-
26-ECE processing room
Cm circular sps c detector (24.
Effective etching diameter 5 cm)
A rectangular lady.
Ece handles rooms of 38 cm 2017×41.
5 cuccm rectangular detector (
Effective etching area of 34 cm × 34 cm (i. e.
Half ~ 38 cmcm × 81 wall cm wall detector)
Two little ladies.
As described in section (1), the ECE rectangular chamber is used to handle relatively small cathode msp c detectors (a)above.
Schematic diagram showing two different designs of MS-ECE chambers; a circular MS-
When the chamber assembly and detector are not assembled, the ECE Chamber (a)
When they are assembled, the circular msp c detector observed during ECE processing also shows an image of the helium ion angular distribution (b);
And a rectangular MS-ECE chamber;
When the chamber components and detectors are not assembled (c)
, When they are assembled, helium ion distribution images are also shown on the rectangular msp c detector, as observed during ECE processing, as well as "ICSs"d).
During the optimized ECE processing process, especially after the optimized ECE processing, the non-auxiliary eye can clearly observe the ion emission angle distribution image on both detectors, in particularThe MS-
The ECE chamber system discussed is a powerful new approach that also allows direct observation of ion images developed on Ece detectors at any stage of ECE processing.
Small 3 cm x 3 cm PC detector placed on the ground PFD base at triple ECE multi
We design and use chamber systems in our lab. The MS-
The ECE approach used in this study requires 50 hz-
High voltage generator provides enough magnetic field strength in MS-
Ece chamber, which holds the sphc detector tightly in place between two and a halfchambers. Home-made 50u2009Hz -
In our study, high voltage generators were designed, built and used to provide sufficient magnetic field strength on sps c detectors.
Generator 50 hz-220 v output through automatic transformer and step-upgrade main power supply
Lift the transformer to the desired voltage.
Optimized field strength at a 50 hz frequency of a minimum of 32 kV.
Cm applied by inserting two semi-stainless steel electrodeschambers (
Full of an etchant)
Keep the sps c detector tight for Ece processing.
Check the high pressure of the entire chamber to understand the stability of the high pressure applied before and during processing.
Sphc detector (250u2009μm thick)
Treatment by applying 50 hz hz-2 kv field strength to the relevant MS-
Ece chamber full of optimized etchant solutions.
Of etching agent is a kind of 15 u2009 g KOH u2009 40 u2009 g CHOH u2009 45 u2009 g Howe (PEW solution)
At 26 °c, the duration is usually 3 hours or sometimes longer in order to better observe the ion emission image when needed.
Interestingly, even after 30 to 60 minutes of ECE processing, ion emission images can be observed, especially with "ICSs" ion emission images on them. When the MS-
Upon completion of ECE processing, fully formed images can be observed, diagnosed and analyzed by counting and analyzing with the naked eye or microscope.
In order to quantitatively diagnose and analyze the ion flux distribution, ion orbital density and orbital diameter were determined under an optical microscope.
At high orbital density, it becomes quite difficult and inaccurate to accurately determine the orbital density and diameter by normal microscope counting, and then to determine the ion energy.
Therefore, in order to better quantify the orbital density and diameter (
Ion Energy in turn)
Especially at high orbital density, a new "pairing-
The detector comparison method recently developed by our lab "has been applied and will be reported soon.
Using this comparison method, the microscopic field image of the helium ion trajectory exposed to the location or position of the msp c detector with unknown injection amount and energy in PFD is compared with the known alpha trajectory the images are compared to the flux and energy in the PC detector produced as a template.
Multiple PC detectors (
Used as a template)
Calibration has been made based on Alpha flux up to 6. 0u2009×u200910 alphas.
Cm and Alpha Energy from ~ 0. 3 to ~5.
At room temperature, 0 mev was obtained by using a uniformly co-focused Am α source in the air.