china moves to tackle ‘white’ pollution - polyethylene terephthalate
A pair of disposable chopsticks, a plastic sugar coat, a train ticket, orange peel, a torn plastic bag with oranges, a sticker label, an apple core and a paper towel. . .
The above list details the garbage generated by Wang and the participation in a week on April 25 --
The long term event called "zero plastic challenge" was launched by Mr. elephant, a public account on WeChat social networking sites that focuses on environmental issues.
The campaign aims to help reduce the consumption of single people.
Using plastic products, participants are required to post a list of garbage they produce on a daily basis to raise their awareness of plastic or "white" contamination.
"I have never bought plastic wrapping paper or garbage bags in the market.
When my family went shopping, we took plastic bags from home to pack green vegetables, such as mung beans, and could not be weighed without packaging, "said Wang MS, 43. year-
Old painter in Beijing
Wang MS realized the harm of plastic products during his college years;
Her cat likes to bite the plastic bag, but often vomit after doing so.
When she realized that "plastic is definitely a bad thing.
She is one of the growing number of Chinese citizens who refuse to be single.
Use plastic products after being aware of their environmental hazards.
However, even if MS King can reduce the use of 5 plastic bags per day-about 2 kg plastic per year-this is still only a fraction of the 75 million tons of plastic consumed in China in 2016.
Ten years ago, in order to cope with the deterioration of pollution and energy waste caused by the rampant use of plastic bags, the State Council of China banned supermarkets, food markets and shopping centers from providing free bags to customers, packages less than 0 are also prohibited. 025mm thick.
The ban, which came into effect on June 1, 2008, restricted the use of plastic bags on the market.
In the first seven years of the nationwide ban, the proportion of plastic bags used in supermarkets and shopping centers has dropped by more than 60, according to the data of the Environmental Protection and Resource Conservation Division of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC).
The reduction in usage is equivalent to 1.
4 million tons, equivalent to 8.
4 million tons of oil, is the main component of various plastics.
Introduction of "pay"
According to Mao Da, founder of the Zero Waste Alliance, using the "policy, customers pay for bags, indicate that they have a price and reward people who do not use bags, environmental NGOs
According to a 2008 consumer survey, after the ban, consumers from 70 to 80 will bring their own plastic bags when shopping. if they do use plastic bags, the number of people will be greatly reduced.
Despite the positive impact of the ban, the authorities have been criticized for failing to pass after the initial success of the policy.
"In the past 10 years, the ban on plastic bags has reduced the use of plastic bags.
However, the policy lacks clear and measurable goals . "
He cited two reasons for the weakening of the ban: the lack of sustained efforts to raise awareness of environmental protection;
And the psychological effect of payment decreased
Because plastic bags are relatively cheap, they are used to consumers.
In an effort to better enforce the ban, Mao called for greater enforcement and increased media and public attention.
Last year, Yao Jia, founder of an environmental NGO called Bichumei Studio, led a survey to investigate compliance with the rules for the use of plastic bags in 211 food markets in 22 cities across the country.
The thickness and recyclability of plastic bags used in 6 markets in the market do not meet the required standards.
Most vendors in the food market are welcome to pay, MS Yao said.
Use the policy because they save money by not giving the customer a package for free, but they are also afraid of losing the customization of their competitors who are open to operating --
Air gear, no charge for bags.
Therefore, many retailers hide bags that meet the standard for fear of scaring off prices
Sensitive shoppers, but they dare not use those who do not meet the standards because they are afraid of being discovered by market regulators, she said.
In order to solve this problem, Yao MS recommends installing the machine in the market to distribute bags that meet the standard.
One of the main reasons plastic bags are "popular", she said, is that people know very little about the pollution caused by plastic bags, and consumers don't know which alternatives to use are safe.
To clarify the situation, her studio produced posters outlining alternatives and posted them in the food market, which the authorities overseeing the implementation of the ban welcomed.
Sun Wei, a plastic pollution researcher, supports a comprehensive ban on single pollution
Use plastic because every time he sees someone using a plastic bag, he worries about "wasting precious oil resources ".
According to Mr. Sun's analysis, China's single consumption is 15 million tons.
Plastic products are used every year and it takes 0. 15 billion tons of oil to produce them.
In addition, according to the National Bureau of Statistics, China consumed 0. 54 billion tons of oil in 2015, of which about 0. 335 billion tons were imported.
He suggested that a tax be imposed on plastic products, which are bottles made of polybendiester (PET)
And shopping bags, plastic packaging and packaging, and indicate that multiple-
Use alternatives such as glass bottles and cloth bags.
In a proposal to the NDRC, Mr. Sun called for careful use of biodegradable plastic bags because "they can only be degraded in a compostable environment, most will be degraded in landfill sites that cannot be biodegradable ".
Mr. Mao supports the zero proposed by Mr. Sun.
Waste the way of life, think that the crux of the problem of white pollution is "single
The convenience and cheap use of plastic products to support consumer culture ".
"Turning to other types of materials instead of plastic does not solve the problem," he said . ".
According to the findings published in the last July issue of scientific progress, in the past 50 years, only plastic waste has been recovered and 12 cents have been burned, another 79 cents were buried in a landfill or dumped illegally.
Mr. Mao hopes to see more action.
"We should ban unreasonable use of plastic products in online shopping and food distribution services and find plastic alternatives," he said . ".
"There are many kinds of plastic products.
Some are easier to recycle, such as polypropylene and polyethylene, and some are more difficult to recycle, such as polystyrene and PVC [PVC]
So we should use them less.
Mao called for reform of the waste recycling system to encourage recycling and reuse of plastic products.
"In the past, we had a huge waste recycling network of our own.
Employed people, but in recent years they have been driven out of big cities such as Beijing by falling prices of recycled materials and policies that put workers at a lower level
"The Terminal industry is at a disadvantage," he said, referring to a group of "pickers" who used to clean up street bins, collect plastic waste and sell it to recycling plants.
Chen has been studying the lives of Beijing pickers for many years, and according to him, the capital produces about recyclable garbage.
Recyclable waste is collected and classified by the pickers in residential areas and then shipped to the recycling market-most of which are families --
This was done in the suburbs, where further classification was carried out, she said.
The system evolved during China's transition to a market economy in the 1980 s, when waste disposal was no longer the exclusive responsibility of local governments and became a matter of private concern.
Chen MS said that most of Beijing's classified waste was sold to workshops in nearby provinces such as Hebei and Shandong, adding that during the peak period of private waste recycling in the capital in 2014, the informal sector provides work for nearly 300,000 people.
Over the next few years, however, nearly half of the pickers left the city, and many of the suburban garbage --
Sorting and trading plants closed due to falling material prices and labor shortages
Workshops outside Beijing have also been affected.
In recent years, efforts to control air pollution in northern China have led to the closure of many small waste recycling enterprises in Hebei that do not meet emission standards.
As a result, recyclable waste is piled up in a landfill.
According to Chen MS, as the private recycling sector feels cold, fewer and fewer people are willing to classify waste, and the recovery rate is getting lower and lower: "In the past, people classify plastic bottles, paper and other recyclable items at home and sell them to collectors, but now many people throw them directly into the trash can.
Ms. Chen added that in order to improve the recovery rate of available waste, policies must be implemented to support classification facilities and recycling plants through favorable ways of taxation and land use.
She also called for the integration of health and resource recovery networks.
According to China's management system, waste disposal is carried out by local authorities and supervised by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
Rural development, although recycling is also handled locally, is supervised by the Ministry of Commerce.
However, she said the separation of duties increased the chances of the garbage eventually entering the landfill and incineration plant, rather than being recycled and reused.
He Lifeng, director of the NDRC, said in a speech in November that it will expand the scope of the plastic ban and work with other departments to develop plans to curb the use of non-plastic products
E-biodegradable plastic packaging
Business, express delivery, online ordering and other services.
The committee also pledged to strengthen law enforcement.
In January, the National Development and Reform Commission launched the process of formulating the national plastic pollution control policy.
This legislation will be based on three main principles: the restriction or prohibition of certain types of plastic products;
Replace some plastic products with more sustainable materials;
Standardize the recycling of waste plastics.
Qu Ruijing, an expert at the China Circular Economy Association, said the principles aim to increase the use of recyclable and raw materials
Based on biodegradable products and widely used other recyclable materials, this will eventually start to solve the problem of white pollution in China.
This article was originally published by China Daily.
View the original article on www. chinadaily. com.