fake art prints: big business getting bigger - mylar sheets for sale
By DOUGLAS C.
MCGILLJULY 1987 This is a digital version of an article from The Times Print Archive, before it begins online publishing in 1996.
To keep these articles as they appear initially, the Times will not change, edit, or update them.
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A network of art publishers and distributors in the United States and Europe are selling fake prints, prints and other fine goods worth millions of dollars --
Every year, there are works of art.
Become a collector across the country according to leading auction houses, legitimate printing dealers and laws
Law enforcement officers
These imitations, including prints disguised as works by famous artists such as El Salvador Dali, Mark Chagar and Joan Miro, are all sold in the form of "original, handmade"Signed by limited company-
High-priced printing is used by galleries and telephone operators, usually for $1,000 to $8,000
Pressure on sales skills.
Nevertheless, experts say the works are basically high-priced.
High-quality posters of original oil paintings, watercolors, or other media works, with forged or faxed signatures, typically worth less than $100.
For centuries, the prosperous enterprises of famous artists forging and copying works have always existed.
However, until recent years, the forging of prints has been carried out in a relatively small range.
But experts say that since the 1970s S, the progress of light machinery printing and the sharp rise in art prices have led to a thriving criminal enterprise targeting inexperienced collectors, trying to profit from the art boom.
Law enforcement authorities have encountered great difficulties in investigating fake markets, first of all, what is the problem of original art.
But over the past few years, they have started their investigations in New York, Wisconsin, New Mexico and Hawaii.
In a state in New York, a recent case ended with a conviction.
Although there are advertisements in many galleries and other placescalled boiler-
The room phone business is in New York, and the plan is nationwide with different estimates of its size.
Vigilia pan coast, director of certification services at the International Foundation for Art Research, said it sells tens of millions of dollars of counterfeit works every year.
New York Attorney General Robert Abrams estimates that more than a billion dollars of fakes have been sold across the country in recent years.
In dollar terms, it is the largest single art collection
"Today's fake scam in the United States," said Connie Lowenthal, executive director of the New York Foundation for International Art Research --
Organizations investigating art fraud.
"Every year, it affects thousands of novice art collectors who want to get something of value.
"One of them is a masseur from Willmar, Minnesota.
It's Herman ahrenhoz.
Until five years ago,
Ahrenholz has never invested a lot in art, but two years after receiving the first call from an art gallery in Manhattan, he bought 21 salesmen for $125,000 and told him it was original, limited work --
Prints signed and supervised by masters such as Daley and Chagar. Dr.
Ahrenholz has never been involved in the gallery of original art Co. , Ltd.
It's the Fifth Avenue address.
The sale was arranged by telephone after the first unsolicited call, in which he was sure that the value of these prints would definitely rise.
But when he tried to resell the artwork through Sotheby's auction house in Manhattan, he found that all chargal Stone prints were fake;
He was also greatly overcharged for Dali and other people's prints. His loss, Dr.
Ahrenholz said in a recent interview that the gallery is worth $80,500 and has been closed and no one can track its owner.
The 66-year-old admitted, "I think this is my wish to earn a few more dollars before I retire"year-old Dr.
Ahrenholz, who authorized Sotheby's to publish his name.
"I'm just not that smart or knowledgeable.
Like many other victims, legal water is vague.
Ahrenholz decided to accept the loss instead of taking the costs of lengthy litigation. And law-
Law enforcement officials and legitimate art dealers say efforts to crack down on the scam have been hampered by various unusual factors, as investigators sailed in pristine and false legal waters.
Rebecca Mulan, assistant attorney general in New York, said that the definition of advertising varies, and that wherever there is a gray area, it is a breeding ground for cheaters.
"In unregulated areas, this is the biggest fraud, and there is a certain degree of subjectivity in determining where value lies.
Experts say the biggest driver of rising prices encouraging the art market comes from record prices in the art market.
A Van Gogh painting was recently sold for $39.
9 million, this is the highest known price ever paid for artwork.
The printing market is also frequently recorded.
For example, on last May, at Christie's auction, a Jasper John Stone print called "0 to 9" brought $93,500.
In 1960, the Museum of Modern Art received one of 35 "0 to 9" prints for $75.
Ken Taylor, director of Taylor Graphics Ltd, said: "We are in a thriving market, so people have more reason to see false money . "
, A leading printing and publishing studio in N. Mount KiscoY.
"If the price of the print is still $50 per piece, people will not be bothered about it.
"Christies and Sotheby's, the two big auction houses in New York, have seen many fake flat-stone paintings that customers want to bring to them by investing in profits.
Auction houses often refuse to sell the works, and owners often find that the frames are more valuable than the stone prints themselves.
Both auction houses say fake Dali prints and prints are so common now that they have stopped accepting any Dali prints for the past few decades.
"It's really a snowball," said Ruth Ziegler, vice president of Sotheby's and expert in printing . ".
"We now see three or four fakes sometimes every week.
We were very nervous so far, so we checked everything very carefully.
"Jennifer Jossen, director of Christie's printing department, said that up to 10% of the Chagar and Miro prints and prints that are now brought to Christie's are forged.
She said the auction house occasionally saw fake works by artists such as Picasso, Mattis and Bulak.
"It's a big business and we have to be more cautious," she said. Josselson said.
Experts say the difference is vague. The key to fraud is the deceptive use of the phrase "original artwork.
"Legal original print is an image created by an artist personally on a stone or zinc plate (
Making Stone prints)
Or a screen (For a sequence diagram)
, Then supervise the printing of multiple works, usually the version with few numbers more than 300.
Then often the plate is damaged or destroyed.
But in the case of many counterfeits, the artist's role is merely the creator of an original work copied by others;
The counterfeiter takes a photo of an original artwork, then takes the negative onto a flat or screen and copies thousands.
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Even in the legal world of art, what is original, what is forged, the difference between the two is vague.
For example, contemporary painters often submit watercolor paintings or other original works to the flat print staff who make the photomechanical flat print of the image, and then the artists sign and sell the works for a limited priceedition prints.
Experts say counterfeiters play a role in this confusion.
Many fakes are made by publishers who say the works are legal because contracts are signed with artists that only allow them little contact with the printmaking process.
The counterfeiter may argue that an artist signs on white paper with photographic copies of the original work printed on it. But law-
Law enforcement officers and legitimate dealers say these signatures are usually forged and the contract is generally non-existent, forged or legally invalid.
The whole production of some works, many fakes, are the whole production.
The work does not start with the photo, but simply "in the style of a given artist ".
Experts say that while some publishers of photographic machinery reproductions sold in the original form are well known, the source of completely forged works remains a mystery for most art circles. According to the Lady
Mulan of New York's attorney general's office won the country's first felony verdict against telephone boiler operators in last February --
Room gallery now
Close the Carol Quartin gallery on Madison Avenue, which sells several fake Dalis suppliers that are Leon Amir.
He is the president of Amiel Publishing.
Publication of art books and fine arts prints with office in SECOS, NYJ. , and Paris.
In a recent telephone interview
Amiel admitted that he was the source of some stone prints.
The works, he said, are not fakes, but "plain interpretation" of Dali's original works ".
He said that he purchased the prints from several publishers in France, which were printed under a contract with Dali himself.
Most of these contracts are advertising.
Amiel said he gave French publishers the right to produce 1,000 original oil paintings and other works in Dali.
According to Mr.
Amiel, all of these works are printed on paper signed by Dali.
The way the works are sold to the public is beyond his control, he said.
'I don't know how these people sell to the public,' he said. Amiel said.
"What they claim, how they sell, and that's something I'm not involved in.
"At the Vertine trial, Carol conver Ting, the gallery's owner, testified that she believed the works were created by individual artists because she received A certificate of authenticity from the wholesaler. D. L.
Rosslyn, fine arts in Los AngelesI. A lawyer for A. D. L.
President of Andrew D.
Levin said in an interview,
Levine "has no reason to doubt that any work is bad" and he has obtained these works from "legitimate businessmen for many years.
"Dali's lawyer in the United States, Michael Stott, admitted in a recent interview that from October 1980 to February 1981, Dali and his wife, Gallas, had signed some contracts with French publishers. But Mr.
According to the laws of France and the United States, these contracts are meaningless because they do not give El Salvador Dali the right to sell these works as "original works of art", Stott said.
More importantly, sir.
Almost all of Dali's fakes on the market are fake signatures, Stott said.
"Dali has not signed any fine arts prints since 1979, nor has there been any white paper suitable for such printing," he said . ".
Next: Crack the fake art market.
The best way to go where to seek advice for certification of stone prints is through legitimate print dealers.
The following organizations can provide referrals and advice to people who may have purchased fake Dali, Chagar, Miro or other prints, and can provide information to those who wish to know about the printing market: 485 Madison Avenue international association of printing dealers. New York, N. Y. 10022 (212)935-
6020 International Art Research Foundation, 46 east 70 Street, New YorkY. 10021 (212)879-
1780 Sotheby's and Christie's, two major auction houses in New York, will only review individual works that wish to be sold by appointment.
If a forgery is found, the work will be returned.
How forged is produced. For most counterfeiters, the method of choice is the technique of light mechanical exposure and light mechanical serialization, converting photos of original works of art into prints or silk --screen print.
Advertising most photographic works such as color magazine photos and cheap fine photos
The art poster was made using the "dot matrix" method.
The reproduced image consists of small dots of solid color that are clearly visible under a magnifying glass.
In contrast, the advanced technology used by the counterfeiters reproduces images in a wide range of color areas that simulate the appearance of the original stone prints or even axis drawings (Or screen).
There is no point that printing is a cheap mass print. produced item.
Fakes are usually printed on high
High quality rag paper, usually done very skillfully, can not be easily distinguished from the original "hand-pulled" print by even the expert.
The two most common techniques are continuous tone exposure and continuous light and mechanical exposure.
With these methods, in the absence of any involvement of the artist, Stone prints or comic strips can be made using only the photos of the work.
Traditionally, artists create prints by drawing designs with oil pens on stone editions.
The painted area will attract ink, while the other areas will not.
Printing is made several times by printing a stone print;
Each pull print receives a new broad area of ink of different colors.
In continuous tone flat print, the worker copies or tracks the images from the photos of the original work on Mylar paper.
Mylar sheets are then used to make plates, one for each color, and then Stone prints from the plates.
In serialized works, this version is made of silk
Screen board copied from the original work photo.
A version of this article appears in print in July 22, 1987, and on page A00001 of the national edition, the title is: fake art printing: Big business is bigger.