flexible printed monolithic-structured solid-state dye sensitized solar cells on woven glass fibre textile for wearable energy harvesting applications - silver coated polyester film
Previously, textile dye sensitive solar cells (DSSCs)
Photovoltaic weaving (PV)
The yarn has been proven, but due to the mechanical forces in the weaving process, the evaporation of the liquid electrolyte and the area of the partially shaded Battery, the implementation of the yarn is challenged, which reduces the performance of the battery.
In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes a new monolithic-
State dye sensitive solar cells (ssDSSC)
Handle textiles using all solution-based processes.
Use a fiberglass textile substrate as the target substrate for printed ssDSSC containing multi-layer electrodes and active materials.
Printed ssDSSC on textiles has been successfully demonstrated and compared with reference devices of the same process on glass substrates.
All photovoltaic textile devices were characterized under simulated AM 1.
Under 5 conditions, the peak efficiency is 0. Achieved 4%.
This method may be suitable for integrating photovoltaic equipment into high temperature textiles at low cost, but in order to expand the scope of application, future research needs to reduce the processing temperature so that the device can be manufactured on standard fabric substrates.
Electronic textile (e-textile)
In recent years, wearable technology has been demonstrated in various applications, such as Intelligent biomedical clothing for medical condition monitoring, diagnosis and treatment, wireless Heart Signal Monitoring in sports and military clothing integrates fabric antennas to support networks and communications.
However, in every electronic
The issue of power supply remains a major challenge. E-
Textiles are usually batteries powered by traditional rigid batteries that change their properties (e. g. feel and drape)of the fabric.
The battery also needs to be replaced regularly, so it is not convenient to use and handle.
An alternative method for batteries is to study energy collection techniques on textiles.
Energy collection involves the transformation of environmental energy (e. g.
Power, heat or light)
Converted into electric energy, which can provide long-term
Term, easy-to-use power supply, may be embedded in textiles (i. e.
The functionality of the fabric makes it an energy harvester)
Meet personal needs.
Obtaining light energy through textile-based solar cells is expected to be a promising approach.
The functionality of textiles is not simple because they are complex structures formed by a wide variety of fibers using many different manufacturing techniques.
The fabric also limits the technology that can be used (e. g.
Limiting process temperature)
Surface roughness is a challenging substrate on which functional films must be deposited.
There are many existing examples of solar cells on fabrics using traditional rigid silicon (glass)
Or plastic solar cells, connected to the fabric as a stand-alone photovoltaic device, as a functional patch.
This method greatly changes the hand feel of the textile, making the fabric relatively inflexible and not
Breathable, the fabric itself does not have additional features.
The manufacturing of solid materials is studied in this paper.
Direct state dye-sensitive solar cells (ssDSSC)
On the fabric substrate.
The limitation of the fabric base means that the existing processes and technologies cannot be simply applied directly to the textile.
Organic, dye in recent years
Solar cells show great potential in the photovoltaic market.
Dye sensitive solar cells (DSSC)
Introduced by O'Regan and Gratzel, is a promising candidate for flexible plastics and e-commerce
Because it is a simple and low-cost manufacturing process that requires high energy conversion efficiency, it is used in textile applications.
The original DSSC consists of two rigid glass substrates, which contain electrodes and liquid electrolyte is injected between the electrodes. Yin .
The plastic DSSCs are made of flexible Intin oxide/poly (ITO/PEN)
As a substrate for front and back electrodes with liquid electrolyte-
Between sealed plastic substrates.
The device achieves power conversion efficiency (PCE)of 5. 8%. Opwis .
DSSCs are manufactured on a fiberglass fabric, which has a silk screen printed polyamide film to smooth the conductive layer on the fabric and on the base of the deposited titanium.
Use the plastic ITO/PET substrate as a top electrode to inject liquid electrolyte-
Between the sealed textile Sunbeam and the ITO plastic top electrode.
PCE with equipment up to 1. 1%.
Another way to achieve the DSSC textile is to make the yarn and fiber functional, which can be woven into the textile.
A DSSC textile made of Poly diester is reported (PBT)
A polymer yarn woven into different fabric structures.
This uses a liquid electrolyte and a PCE of 1 is obtained.
3% of a single fiber, the highest level reported so far by the fiber DSSCs.
This approach presents a challenge in large-area applications, namely, connecting some cross-cylindrical yarn solar cells that have been woven into textiles.
In addition, the limitation of the curvature of the bending radius and the easy breakage of the fiber will cause the performance of the battery to decline.
In addition, they are partially covered when woven into textiles, which may reduce power conversion efficiency.
All of these photovoltaic yarns use conventional liquid electrolyte DSSCs that are subject to leakage, corrosion and long periods of time
Term stability issues in practical applications.
These problems can be avoided by using holes to transmit materials or solid electrolyte.
Since Bach's first report
Spiro, amorphous organic material, 1998-OMeTAD (,,,,,,,-octakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9-spirobi[fluorene]-2,2,7,7-tetraamine)
It is considered to be the most promising solid electrolyte for ssDSSCs. Hardin .
Tin oxide in fluorine (FTO)
In this work, the TiO compact layer (CL)
Spray Pyrolysis deposition is used, and then the TiO nano-pore layer is used by the doctor for dye Sensitivity enhancement, and then the coated solid electrolyte helix is rotated-OMeTAD layer.
The device displays PCE as 2. 7% and 2.
Evaporation silver 8% (Ag)
And laminated silver nano wires (AgNW)
The top electrodes are respectively.
The same structure of ssDSSCs on ss glass substrate was reported, but after rotating coated solid electrolyte, rotating coated PEDOT: PSS layer to provide better with spraying the ag northwest top electrode
In this case, the device shows an improved PCE for 3. 7%.
Printing technology is a mature processing technology to realize e-commerce.
Textiles, is a simple technology to add functionality on any traditional basis (non electronic)fabric.
The devices proposed in this research paper are manufactured using a new combination of solution-based deposition techniques, including screen printing, drop casting and spraying.
All three deposition technologies are compatible with textile manufacturing.
For example, screen printing is a common method of pattern drawing of textiles by color ink bonded with yarn fibers and being able to withstand washing and friction.
Drop casting can use dispensing devices to deposit isolated droplets or continuous liquid films, which are fully automated in inkjet printing.
Spraying is a blanket coating process used in the textile industry to deposit continuous films in large fabric areas.
For example, it has been used to provide coatings for upholstery fabrics with Hot Melt Adhesive polymers.
With these processes, the uniformity and consistency required to achieve functional electronic equipment on a large area of different textile surfaces is an ongoing research challenge.
This work investigated the use of a patterned functional film by spraying the coating through a shadow mask, and the process combination demonstrated a solution-based process in the large-scale manufacture of e-
Textile devices and functional layers on the surface of the fabric.
Previously, we studied the liquid DSSC on Kapton and polyurethane coated polyester cotton cloth, and the results showed that the efficiency was 7. 03% and 2.
This device structure involves the manufacture of photoactively on Kapton and fabric substrates, but the use of rigid FTO glass as a top electrode.
As a result, the DSSC is still not flexible and the liquid electrolyte is not suitable for the manufacture of textile equipment because it will leak and evaporate through the fabric.
We have also studied the properties of TiO layers at processing temperatures before.
DSSC was prepared on FTO glass with an efficiency of 7.
41%, however, it is found that the TiO layer sintering film and achieving this efficiency requires a minimum processing temperature of 450 °c.
Therefore, in order to achieve a flexible and stable DSSC on textiles, two kinds
Size ssDSSC manufactured on woven high temperature fiberglass fabric substrate.
Textile ssDSSC is printed directly on uncoated fiberglass substrates and on fiberglass textiles planned using liquid pi film.
All materials used can withstand the required 450 °c processing temperature and compare the performance in each case with the reference structure manufactured on the FTO glass substrate.
The device is already using X-
Ray diffraction (XRD)
Atomic force microscopy (measurement of PCE and transmission ratio)AFM)
Electrical impedance spectrum (EIS)
It is also used to characterize the electrochemical processes that occur in glass and fabric ssDSSCs.