from resistors to ics color codes - metalized polyester
I 've been working backwards since the solid state Circuit appeared.
When I looked up the color code on the instructures, I was surprised to find that there are only a few pages of instructures on the component color code.
The color code we all know and like comes from the EIA Standard ,(
Electronic Industry Association
They are used at one time or another for almost all devices, even vacuum tubes.
They are still used on many electronic devices today.
I work on many old electronic devices;
Capacitors and resistors may be out of tolerance over time.
Old devices usually have color coded components that are not visible today in newer electronics, and the exact components are often no longer available.
I can reverse engineer the circuit and guess what the appropriate replacement component is and its value, or I can look up the color code and choose a modern replacement component that can work.
Finding component values and attributes from the color code is easier than reverse engineering from scratch.
These are some color codes that I use when dealing with electronics.
The EIA standard color code used in electronic products is simple;
Although the color and color bars have remained basically the same this year, some of their values have also changed as technology evolves.
Most color codes read from left to right have gaps on the right side, and there may be gaps on the bottom of the circular assembly.
EIA standard color standard for important numbers;
Starting with two effective numbers, up to four effective numbers in some components and semiconductors.
From scratch, one is brown, two is red, three is orange, four is yellow, five is green, six is blue, seven is purple, eight is gray, nine are white
The multiplier is the same color as the valid number, only you multiply in dozens of numbers according to the color, I move the decimal point to the zero quantity indicated by the color number, there is no black, one zero of Brown, two zeros in red, and so on, like valid numbers.
In addition, according to the color code of the component, add gold and silver to the multiplier, gold divided by 10, silver divided by 100. Gold 0. 1Silver 0.
01 therefore, the resistance of the silver ribbon at the far right behind the brown black and red ribbon is 1,000 kWh resistance with a tolerance of 10%, or 1 k resistor with a tolerance of 10%.
Tolerance is the accuracy of the component to the color code.
Therefore, if the resistance color code indicates that it is a resistance of 1,000 kWh with a tolerance of 10%, then the real resistance of the resistance is between 1,100 kWh and 900 kWh.
With the improvement of technology and precision, the tolerance has changed, and the tolerance of many old parts is as high as 20%.
These components will have a black or No-Face ribbon where the tolerance band should be.
The voltage ribbon is on the capacitor, but not all capacitors have a significant rated voltage, and not all capacitor types have the same rated voltage.
Therefore, the voltage color code of a set of capacitors will have different values from the voltage color code of another set of capacitors.
The rated voltage is the maximum voltage you can apply to the capacitor before it starts to break through.
Temperature coefficient "alpha "(α)
, Is not displayed on the basic color code.
On some resistors and capacitors, you will find the color tape of the temperature coefficient.
The temperature coefficient on the capacitor and resistor indicates the value change rate of the element as it changes with the element temperature.
For any temperature other than the standard temperature normally specified at 20 degrees Celsius, the resistance and capacitance values change.
For pure metals, this coefficient is a positive number, which means that the resistance increases as the temperature rises.
For elements such as carbon, silicon, and ge, this coefficient is negative, which means that the resistance decreases as the temperature rises.
This change in resistance and capacitance will affect the performance of some electronic devices.
Determine the amount of variation with these formulas: R = Rref [1+α(T – Tref)]C = Cref [1 + α(T – Tref)]
WhereR = resistance of resistance when temperature "T" R picofarads (pF)0.
000,000,000,001 farad, nanofarads (nF)0.
000,000,001 farad and microfarads (uF)0. 000,001 farad.
Ceramic capacitors are marked in picofarads (pF).
The ceramic capacitors and color codes in the three bands look much like color coded resistors, starting from left to right, with a gap at the far right or bottom of the disc capacitor.
The first color band on the left side of the capacitor is sometimes larger and more obvious and is the first valid number.
The second valid number is the second ribbon on the left.
The multiplier is the third ribbon on the left.
The tolerances for these capacitors may be 20%.
The reading of ceramic capacitors in the four bands is roughly the same. The fourth band is the tolerance on the far right.
Five band Ceramic Capacitors read from left to right, the first ribbon on the left is usually larger, and more obviously the temperature factor, then the first effective number, the second effective number, the multiplier, on the far right is tolerance.
In picofarads, the capacitance on the cloud chip and the molded paper capacitor is marked (pF).
There are three to six color points in the color code of the cloud chip and molded paper capacitor, and are marked with some kind of arrow for reading.
While the colors you read are much like color coded resistors, they are not always read in the same order.
Also, they have types, voltages, and categories in their color codes.
Therefore, please pay attention to the color code chart posted when reading.
Mark ceramic capacitors with rated voltage in picofarads (pF)
As with other ceramic color coded capacitors, read from left to right with a gap on the far right of the capacitor.
The first ribbon may be larger, and the first valid number is on the left side of the capacitor.
The second color band on the left is the same size as the first color band and is the second valid number.
The third ribbon slightly smaller from the left is the multiplier, and the tolerance is the fourth ribbon with a voltage on the far right.
Ceramic disc Capacitor color code with voltage, the reading is roughly the same, but you start reading the color band from the top of the capacitor and read it to the bottom of the capacitor.
The first ribbon at the top is the voltage and the second ribbon at the top is the first valid number.
The second valid number is the third ribbon starting at the top.
The multiplier is the fourth ribbon starting from the top, and the tolerance is the fifth ribbon at the bottom.
Metallized Polyester and Pin capacitors with and without rated voltage.
From the top, read the ribbon to the bottom of the capacitor.
The first ribbon at the top is the first valid number.
The second valid number is the second ribbon starting at the top.
The multiplier is the third ribbon starting from the top, the tolerance is the fourth ribbon, and when they have a rated voltage, it is the fifth ribbon at the bottom of the capacitor.
The Ta capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor, and its capacitance is marked by micromethod (uF).
The ta Capacitor color code with voltage, from the top to the bottom of the capacitor, reads much like a color-coded resistor.
The first ribbon at the top is the first valid number.
The second ribbon at the top is the second valid number.
The multiplier is the point in the middle of the first and second color orders.
When you look at the multiplier point, the voltage is the ribbon at the bottom and the positive lead is to the right.
Usually, without tolerance, they add 35 volts of pink to the color code.
The inductance is measured in Henries with nano Henries (nH)0.
There are 000,000,001 chicken houses, chicken houses (uH)0.
000,001 chicken houses, million chicken houses (mH)0. 001 henries.
Except SMD (
Surface mounting equipment)
Inductor read in nano coil (nH)
, Read color coded inductor in microhenries (uH).
As with the resistor, the inductor is read from left to right and has a gap and a far right tolerance.
The first ribbon on the left is the first valid number.
The second valid number is the second ribbon on the left.
The multiplier is the third ribbon on the left, and the tolerance is the fourth ribbon on the far right.
However, not all books read this way.
The first color point on the left side of the Dipped inductor is the multiplier, the second point on the left is the second valid bit, and the third point is the first valid bit without tolerance.
Some three-ribbon inductors do not have a multiplier.
The first color ribbon on the left is the five color ribbon inductors of the silver ribbon, which are military weldable leads.
The semiconductor color code is less reliable than the resistor, capacitor, or Inductor color code.
Some color codes are the same as the specific manufacturer in the Philips SMD code manual.
The monochrome belt diode can tell you the type of the diode and the Yin extreme of the diode, but there is no alphanumeric mark, such (2. 4).
You will never know this is a 2.
4 volt Zener diode.
Some manufacturers that make two ribbon diodes use the same ribbon for different series of diodes.
Most of the germanium diode ribbons just tell you the Yin extreme of the diode.
Some manufacturers that make three color band diodes use the same color band for different series of diodes.
Four band diode color codes use color bands to make alphanumeric representation of the part numbers that you can look up on the website and on the data Manual is much more reliable.
The first two color bands are prefixes, and the last two are numbers, just like valid numbers in the standard EIA color code.
Once you have a part number, these sites are great for finding data sheets.
The JEDEC series diode color code assumes that the first two are 1N, and the next two to four bits in the part number are ribbons.
Each color band represents a number, such as a standard valid number in the EIA color code.
If the diode has a suffix, the last ribbon in four and five ribbon diodes is a suffix letter.
If you are not familiar with diodes, this may make it difficult to read the diode part number.
Is it 1N400G or 1N4007?
In short, the diode color code works best if you already know what diode you are using.
Unless you repair or reverse engineer old electronics like I did, the transistor color code won't be of much use.
They used to be very common, but they are of little use today.
For the JEDEC transistor, the color code assumes a standard transistor prefix, such as 2N.
Valid numbers are standard EIA color codes read from top to bottom from two to four valid numbers.
When the color bars are located at the top of the transistor, read them from left to right.
So if the color band of the transistor is red, red, it means 2222.
A quick look at the datasheet will tell you if it is a 600 mW pnp general purpose transistor like MPS2222 or 2N2222 or if it is a 2SD2222 power transistor.
Common triode PrefixesMJ: flatlla power supply, metal caseMJE: flatlla power supply, low power consumption of plastic caseMPS: flatlla, high frequency, very high frequency transistorRCA: RCARCS: RCSTIP: TI power transistorplatic case)
TIPL: TI plane power transistor: TI small transistor (plastic case)
ZT: FerrantiZTX: FerrantiPro-
The last set of prefixes.
The 2sa2sb2sc2sd2sjsklike transistor integrated circuit uses color codes in a short period of time. The prefix is the first color bar. The first group of valid numbers is the second color bar number.
This is a list of corporate letter prefixes for integrated circuit manufacturers, which are usually used as the first part of the device part number.
For example, an RCA logic device may have a part number CD4049, which indicates that it is an RCA device and the rest is a part number.
If the part number is mc1449, the device is manufactured by Motorola and indicated by MC. CA; RCA (analog)CD; RCA (digital)DM;
National Semiconductor (digital)GD Goldstar (digital)HA; Hitachi (analog)HD; Hitachi (digital)MC; MotorolaTA; ToshibaTC;