functional asymmetries in the movement kinematics of patients with tourette’s syndrome - transparent pet sheet
In this study, a parallel task design was used to quantify the efficiency and fluency of voluntary movement in patients with rette syndrome by using a graphical tablet that allows the analysis of motion profiles.
In particular, the purpose is to determine the concurrent task (digit span)
Will affect the movement of targeted directional movement, and whether patients with Twitch rette syndrome will show abnormal functional asymmetry compared to matched controls. Methods—
Twelve patients with raiding rette language syndrome and their matched controls performed 12 vertical tortuous movements of the left and right hands (
With and Without concurrent tasks)
, Large or small targets in a long or short range. Results—
In the short stroke, controls showed that the predicted right hand had a greater advantage in exercise time than in the case of the withdrawal rette syndrome, and the case of the withdrawal rette syndrome showed greater in the short stroke
The controlled right hand is less efficient in long travel, and more efficient in short travel, while any hand in patients with Twitch rette syndrome is equally effective, regardless of the length of the trip, has an overall performance profile similar to the controller left hand but superior to the left hand.
However, the tasks carried out at the same time improved the power efficiency of the right hand and the control left hand in patients with rette language syndrome. Conclusions—
Compared with the control group, patients with touting rette language syndrome were not impaired in the performance of rapid target orientation movements, such as Target targeting;
They performed better than controls in some respects.
These findings clearly add to the growing literature on the abnormal side of touting rette language syndrome, which may be explained by the recent reported loss of normal basal disc asymmetry in touting rette language syndrome.
Methods all the volunteers recruited by the Vitoria touting rette language Syndrome Association, and 12 age-matched control participants without a history of neurological diseases were sampled.
Recruited control subjects from a healthy population and by gender, age (within 2 years)
Short test of mental state (STMS)score.
All subjects agreed to participate in the study before the test.
There are 1 woman and 11 men in each group, with an average age of 30.
8 years per group.
All subjects write right hand (
And according to our 22-
29 standard nailing procedures (
A performance indicator).
This task involves moving a series of 10 pins between the two rows of holes as soon as possible.
This has been done four times after several practice trials, with each hand facing and away from the subject.
If the subject is at least 0, it is considered right handed.
The right hand is 4 seconds faster than the left hand.
All subjects had normal vision or corrected normal vision.
All patients who have pulled the rette language syndrome have been diagnosed by a psychiatrist and are in line with the DSM-III-
The diagnostic criteria for touting rette language syndrome with chronic exercise and vocal Twitch are 30. the onset age is before the age of 21, and the pumping duration is more than one year.
The duration after the diagnosis of Tourette's syndrome ranges from two to 43 years, with an average duration of 8 years. 8 years.
All subjects were screened for dementia using STMS.
27A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
There was no significant difference in the STMS scores between patients with touting rette syndrome and the control group (F(1,22)= 1. 68, P> 0. 21).
To assess depression, an emotional assessment scale of 31 was used.
The paired sample t-test showed that patients with Twitch rette syndrome were significantly depressed compared to the control group they matched (
Two error-free tests were conducted.
There were 32 trials in total, 16 trials, and 16 trials without concurrent tasks. Hand (
The left hand starts from the left or the right hand starts from the right)
Target configuration (small targets-
Big move, big goal-
Small move big goal-large strokes)
And task type (
There are no concurrent tasks, there are concurrent tasks)
For each target configuration, a balance is made across topics.
Data analysis of the horizontal and vertical vector components was obtained for each motion, although only the vertical components were analyzed as the motion mainly along the longitudinal axis.
The data is filtered (
Low pass, 10 hz cut off)
Use a recursive, double-pass, second-order Butterworth filter.
Secondly, the displacement data is distinguished by the nine-point center finite difference algorithm, and the velocity and acceleration functions of each test are obtained.
The motion accuracy is then calculated using an automatic algorithm and the motion features of the motion are determined, such as duration, peak speed, and force inefficiency functions.
The measurement displacement dimension accuracy relative to the stroke end point of the Target Center is calculated (in mm)
Then average each target.
The average distance is represented by the accuracy metric (in mm)
From the stroke end point to the Target Center, it has nothing to do with the direction.
This is determined to ensure that the accuracy of the end strokes of the two subject groups is consistent.
Average time is reflected in the moving time (in ms)
Average per pen throughout the test (12 strokes).
Stroke motion measurements such as peak speed and force inefficiency are also calculated. Peak velocity (mm/s)
Indicates the maximum speed obtained in the whole test (12 strokes).
The force inefficiency index is calculated by dividing the number of zeros in the acceleration function by the number of zeros in the speed function.
Therefore, the metric represents the average number of changes in each Submotion from acceleration to deceleration;
Therefore, the greater the value of the inefficient index, the lower the efficiency of moving.
All measurements for each target configuration have been tested twice.
The results of each measure are subject to five analysis of variance (ANOVAs)with non-
Repeated measurement of the group (
Withdrawal of rette syndrome (control)
Four repeated measuresnamely, task (
No concurrency, no concurrency)
Length of travel (long, short), target size (large, small), and hand (left, right)
Repeated measures of the last four factors.
In order to correct the situation that may violate the normal assumption, the strict alpha level is 0.
The data described below adopts 025.
The moving time analysis of displacement data reveals the significant main influence of travel length (F (1,22)=67. 63, P