how to x-ray - metalized polyester
So you want to learn how xray?
Do I have some information for you?
Why should I write this manual?
OK, have the chance to win the objet 3D printer!
Why am I doing this?
Build a hacker space, of course!
None of them within 50 miles of my town left behind those who wanted to build things;
People like me and my friends are not lucky.
When I'm trying to design a better, manufacturing, portable x-
Machine, can not get 3D printer!
I spent most of two months writing this guide just to give some geeks a chance (me included)
The tools they deserve.
It would be great if you could vote for my guidance :-)Warning:X-rays can kill.
At the very least, they can get you cancer, which is also fatal.
If you do not fully understand the danger of ionising radiation and do not have the ability to deal with voltages that exceed 50000ev, in no case will it replicate what I have done here.
"Conventional radiation" such as microwaves, infrared and visible light generally do not have the energy needed to break the chemical bond, so we may sit in the sun and be bombarded with kilowatts without any adverse effects.
However, once we are exposed to UV rays, this radiation now has enough energy to break these chemical bonds-including those in our bodies.
This means high energy radiation, for example from x-
The ray tube can damage the DNA and even cause radiation disease at a high enough dose.
When your body absorbs a lot of ionising radiation, acute radiation disease usually occurs.
The cause of radiation death is its effect on DNA.
When high-energy particles, whether photons or other particles collide with DNA, it breaks the bonds and rearranges the bases.
Normally, your cell can repair this damage, but if a cell fails on this task, it usually commits suicide before splitting.
This is not too much of a problem for long-lived cells like muscles because other cells have time to replace dead cells. For short-
However, because the cell death rate is too fast to be replaced, this apoptosis becomes a major problem.
This short-lived cell includes mucus.
Make cells arranged on the intestinal wall.
When exposed to sufficient radiation, these mucus cells begin to die in large quantities and are therefore not replaced.
No mucus cell means no mucus, no mucus means no protection for stomach trouble.
The intestines stop absorbing food particles and the acid burns the tissue and eventually you die from sepsis.
If you survive this pain, you need a bone marrow transplant now
Living bone marrow cells have died.
Symptoms of radiation disease include nausea, stomachache and lack of energy, and detailed charts of symptoms can be found here.
That's why we protect ourselves from ionising radiation!
Keep in mind that causing radiation sickness requires a lot of radiation, not a plate that can perceive radiation, or even something that can be produced by a clock that has been coated with RA.
However, the Coolidge tube can definitely produce very strong radiation!
To reduce the amount of radiation you are exposed to, the shield is placed between you and the radiation source.
This shield reduces the amount of radiation to an acceptable level.
However, what is the acceptable level?
In the end, it depends on your decision, but in general the idea is as low as possible.
To help determine what an acceptable level is, I have here a chart of activities that expose a person to radiation. [image 1]
There are many different types of radiation, and each type must be treated differently in terms of radiation protection.
Some types require more shielding than others, and since this is a guide I'm going to do some explanation now.
The first is the radiation of particles, and then the radiation.
But before we talk about energy.
Radiation can have different levels, and the energy is measured electronically. volts (eV). One electron-
Voltage is defined as the amount of energy an electron gets when it moves in an electric field of a voltage.
For example, the energy of a green photon is usually about 2.
3eV, and the energy of the blue light is 3eV.
When it hits something, more energy radiation can cause more damage, which is why it's like a microwave emitted by a mobile phone (0. 00001eV)
When the energy of gamma rays may be 5 million eV, no chemical damage will be caused.
Generally speaking, higher energy radiation is more difficult to shield than lower energy radiation, but when it comes to particle radiation, this type often plays a bigger role in determining penetration.
Usually, the penetrating force of particle radiation is the smallest. . .
Alpha decay is the most common method of radioactive decay.
During alpha decay, unstable elements squirt out an appropriately ionised helium nucleus called alpha particles.
In fact, all the helium on Earth comes from the decay of underground uranium and other elements.
Although the energy of alpha particles is very high, usually in the range of MeV, their energy is very large.
Because they are easily blocked.
In fact, alpha particles can't even pass through a piece of paper, even the skin.
Alpha particles are often difficult to pass through more than 3 cm of the air, so there is no need for special shielding for alpha radiation.
Don't eat the Alpha launcher, you'll be fine.
The next type of radioactive decay is beta decay, a process in which a neutron is converted into a proton, and the exchange is that an electron and a neutrino are emitted.
Neutrinos are not a concern because they are small, light, neutral, and therefore fly into space like ghosts through whatever matter they encounter.
However, the fast electron known as the beta particle has a negative charge, so it can interact with the substance and thus pose a danger.
Fortunately, beta particles are not very penetrating;
All it takes to protect them is a piece of aluminum.
The last particle radiation is called neutron radiation;
Something that arises when the atoms are fused or split.
Unlike all other forms of radiation, neutrons can actually convert radioactive material into radioactive material!
This is because when a neutron hits an atom, it may stick to it, turn the atom into another stable isotope, or it may be a radionuclides.
Neutron radiation is not a concern unless you are playing with Farnsworth Fusors or uranium reactors, but nevertheless, it is better to shield with light materials of everything, such as water and aluminum
A lot of water is a good neutron moderator, but because of that, so is the human body.
Therefore, Neutron radiation is particularly dangerous for organisms, so avoid it as much as you can.
No particle radiation is encountered when you play x-
Rays, it's better to always be told!
Now that we have particle radiation, it's time to do it, no longer, as it is now: high-energy photons.
What you should be concerned about is two types of radiation; gamma and x-rays.
Let's start with gamma rays first.
In some radionuclides, the nucleus of an atom is excited after beta or alpha decay.
This energy is then released through a very high energy photon.
The high energy I'm talking about is a few megabytes of electron volts, because gamma rays are very penetrating.
It takes quite a bit of material to stop them, so lead is usually the preferred material for gamma shielding.
If you have a very active gamma source for some reason, use a lot of lead to shield it.
5 cm or more of this gray metal should be enough. X-
The other type of radiation I'm going to talk about is x-rays. X-
When electrons dump a large amount of energy into a single photon, resulting in very high-energy light particles, light is generated. X-
Light is very much like regular light: they travel in straight lines and can be reflected and scattered in the air like a green laser.
When doing experiments with x-
Light, make sure you have plenty of light in your lab.
Although the Cinderella wall is about stopping x-
Escape the light from your lab and they are also perfect to reflect them to you!
It's better to let them run away instead of letting them bounce around.
Be sure to point out your x-if possible-
Light shoots into the earth or in the air: it is unlikely to be intercepted anywhere by animals or humans.
Never start x-
In the absence of complete knowledge that the radiation will be controlled, the optical tube in the common residence or apartment, never deliberately expose itself to x-radiation.
It's important to protect yourself from x-
Prevent excessive exposure of light!
The amount of shielding required depends entirely on x-
The light stopped.
Lead is an ideal shield for x-
Because it is cheap, easy to operate, and has high nuclear power;
Something that absorbs radiation well.
For convenience, I have prepared this chart of energy and energyattenuation vs.
Use the amount of lead required by the standards set by the International Atomic Energy Agency. [Image 1]
Essentially, Coolidge tube is a thermal ion diode optimized for high voltage and high power.
Like a hot ion diode, all elements are contained in a glass envelope that is evacuated to the hardest vacuum.
The operation method of Coolidge tube is not far from the deviation of the diode.
The heater is given a little current to heat it to the incandesence, in which case the hot tungsten cathode now boils the electron cloud while simultaneously focusing the electron cloud into the beam.
The electrons are then attracted to the positively biased anode and moved to it at a very high speed.
When the anode is reached, high-energy electrons lose energy by colliding with metal atoms.
Most of these electrons will only heat the anode, but about 2% will produce x-
In a process called bremsstrahlung, the light line is emitted. 1.
Literally translated as "brake radiation", a process of high speed electronic "brake and sling"
Emitted around the nucleus, transfer the kinetic energy to a photon.
An electron may be given more than 60 kV electrons, so some very energetic photons will be generated;
The photon into space becomes x-
The light we all know and love.
What determines x-
The resulting Ray is the amount of voltage present on the anode.
Actually very simple;
More voltage means more electron attraction, and more attraction leads to faster electron beams.
Faster electrons are able to produce photons of higher energy, so x-of "more difficult", higher energy-
It produces light.
Bremsstrahlung is a continuous spectral radiation similar to a "white light" source.
Because most electrons wipe a few atoms before they have a chance to launch.
Shooting, they often lose some energy before doing any x-radiation.
The entire range of X-
So Ray energy is generated.
Maximum energy of X-
The energy that the ray can have is limited to the energy that produces its electrons, and it itself is proportional to the voltage applied to the tube anode.
This energy is usually measured at a kV peak or kVp.
In reality, most of the x
Low energy of light produced, "soft" x
But the light was greatly weakened by the glass wall of the tube. 2.
Feature production feature or k-
Line production is the second mode in which electrons may produce x-ray.
In this method, electrons knock out other atoms from the shell layer at the bottom of the atom and leave holes that must be filled.
This unstable arrangement is then quickly stabilized by the electrons that jump down the filling hole from the higher shell layer, emitting x-
Ray photons in the journeyTungsten k-
The binding energy of the shell electron is 69.
So to launch these, the energy of your collision electrons must be greater than 69. 5keV.
Usually, in order to achieve this, the anode needs to be given more than 72 kv, so the standard 75kV x-ray tube. After a k-
The shell electrons start and its holes will be immediately filled with l-electrons from tungstenshell;
Bound energy 10. 2 keV.
The difference between these two energy states; 69. 5 keV and 10.
2 thousand electrons V to our characteristic tungsten x-
Ray energy of 59. 3 keV.
The molybdenum anode produces two peaks, one at 19.
Kevin and others at 17: 7. 6keV.
Interestingly, this process can be used according to the k-lines.
By bombarding the sample with electrons and measuring the output spectrum, x-
The X-ray fluorescence analyzer can determine what elements the compound contains.
When the anode voltage controls the "hardness" of x-
Light, voltage applied to the tube heater to total x-ray flux.
The hotter cathode releases more electrons, reduces the impedance, and allows a larger current to flow through the tub.
However, one must be careful because too much power can damage the anode of the tube by over-heating.
Ideally, medical x
The ray generator will provide short and high intensity radiation bursts to reduce the "shutter speed" and overall dose absorbed by the patient.
It is convenient that these tubes usually come with a set of parameters that can be used to help the machine design; [image 1]
Shows the relationship between the heater voltage of the tube I selected and the anode current.
As can be seen from the curve, 2 must be applied.
6 V to the heater in order to allow a decent 3 mA to flow through the anode of the tube.
While 3 mA may not sound like a lot of current, it's a respectable 75,000 W power at 225 V!
The efficiency is assumed to be 3%, which is equivalent to 6. 7W of x-ray energy out.
When you think of 100 W of light
The light bulb emits an average of 4 watts of visible light, and it is clear that the tube emits considerable radiation;
Enough to expose a movie.
A critical value that must be known is the heat storage of the anode.
The thermal conductivity of tungsten/copper anode is limited, thus limiting its ability to dissipate the huge heat generated by a focused electron beam.
In order to cope with this Coolidge tube, which is usually operated at the duty cycle, is limited by the operating power and the heat storage of the anode.
In typical cooling pipes, this heat capacity is usually 7kJ.
Fortunately, these two x-
X-ray machine and X-ray machine
[Federal law requires light controlCFR Title 21]
Provide anode Heating and Cooling curves for its equipment [image 1].
It is clear that operating this tube with a power of 225 W will limit the maximum exposure time to less than 1 minute and the cooling time is 5 minutesdown period. Of course x-
The amount of radiation is actually never 1 minute long;
Usually only a few seconds at most.
If the tube is not abused, 225 W will not be the unreasonable power to operate it.
There are many ways to generate high voltage, including but not limited to Tesla coils, induction coils, Marx generators, Van-De-
Graf generator and Cockroft-Walton falls.
There are even some unorthodox methods such as piezoelectric and thermoelectric crystals.
Although all of these methods have their own advantages and disadvantages
The Walton voltage multiplier will be the preferred circuit for this project.
Well-designed cascades are able to convert large power at relatively small losses, and they are light in weight and small in size, ideal for small x-ray generator.
Refer to the first schematic.
By injecting AC into this circuit, one can sacrifice the cycle and current in exchange for a double, triple or even four times the DC voltage.
The working mode of all and all circuits is quite simple, as it is nothing more than a cascade of Greinacher beater [second image]
At negative alternating, the bottom plate of C1 is charged-10kV via D1.
Subsequently, positive and electrical alternating C1 in series with another 10kV, resulting in a total potential difference of 20 kV, shared with C2 through d2.
This 20kV can then be discharged, or another cascade can be added to generate 30kV, or another cascade can be added to generate 40 kV.
However, in reality, since the parasitic resistance limits the current that was originally very high, it takes several cycles for the stack to reach its full potential.
The above formula can be used to predict the maximum voltage that may exist between grounding and level n.
There is nothing obviously complicated about this mathematics;
This is just the peak DC input value multiplied by the series in the multiplier stack.
Of course, this is only the theoretical output voltage.
Large high voltage capacitors are expensive and bulky, so we use small capacitors and high XC in most cases.
Now look at equation 2.
The large effect of n in the second half of the equation shows that using as few stages as possible in the multiplier will help minimize the voltage drop.
Less stage means less series
String capacitors, thereby reducing XC. Likewise, I ÷ (f * C )
It tells us that higher frequencies and larger capacitors will reduce the voltage drop under load.
In both cases, xc will be reduced.
Therefore, an actual multiplier will contain no more than 5 stages to work at a very high frequency and have a capacitor with a value of not less than 500pF.
The fact that many capacitors are placed in series in the multiplier increases this problem.
The high impedance properties of this circuit allow for a significant reduction in voltage for any type of load.
This drop-down can be so far-reaching that it takes time to develop a formula to estimate the voltage drop under various conditions.
Typical multiplier of X-
The machine will be made up of 4 stages and they themselves consist of a pair of seriesconnected 1.
5nF, 15kV capacitors and another pair of 2 series-
String 15kV Superfast diodes.
This gives the equivalent of 30kV and 30kv diodes respectively.
The operating frequency should be set to 70 kHz to keep the capacitor loss in the transformer winding to a minimum level, but this should still be high enough to pass 3 mA without too much pressure drop.
Please refer to picture 2. This 2.
The 6kV drop is certainly reasonable and can be compensated by increasing the input voltage of 650 V.
But there's a small problem,
This formula is largely useless.
The theoretical voltage drop should be 2.
6kV, the most likely order is 6 to 12 kV.
While this is much higher than predicted, it is not impossible to compensate by slightly increasing the frequency and input voltage.
The CW multiplier still requires medium voltage, high frequency input.
Obviously this cannot be obtained from 5,000 AA cells, so it has to be produced by some oscillating magic.
The most logical spelling, of course, is the forward-mode anti-excitation converter, preferably the one that switches over zero-voltage or zero-current intersections to minimize loss.
In order to get 225 W under 12kV, we need 54 mA W, assuming the efficiency is 100%, we also need to draw 6 W.
25A of 36 v source.
Of course, the efficiency of 100% is not available, but for amateurs, 10A under 36 v is still not unreasonable.
One of the selected oscillator for this task is current-
Fed ZVS oscillator;
LC Resonance zero-
Voltage switch circuit.
Although Hartley oscillator or Colpitts oscillator can be used, there is no-
Load conditions, therefore, consume a lot of power when the MOSFET passes through its linear region.
Please refer to the schematic diagram [image 1].
When supplying power to the circuit, the current begins to flow through L1 and flows into the drain pipe of mosters through the center tap load coil.
At the same time, this voltage appears on the two gates and starts to turn on the mosfet.
Since no two fet are the same, one opens faster than the other and reduces the voltage on the gate of the MOSFET opposite.
One FET is now locked and the other is off.
The storage tank capacitor prevents the circuit from maintaining this state, because LC resonance causes Sine resistance in the circuit;
This will "flip" the state of Moss falls and inject more current resistance into the tank.
This oscillation continues until power is cut off, or in some unstable situations such as a saturated load inductor locking a MOSFET to death and causing the circuit to explode.
While this circuit is theoretically feasible, this oscillator proved to be very unreliable without some modifications.
Instead of connecting the gates directly to the LC tank, let them pull normally through a pair of resistors, in which the LC tank passes through ultra-
Fast feedback diode.
This method ensures that the gate is locked and the circuit is killed without stray current. [image 2]
Of course, the MOSFET Gate cannot tolerate VGS over 30 v, so it is a wise idea to use an 18 v Zener diode to protect the gate from such excessive voltage.
The 10 k discharge resistor ensures that no stray charge is left on the gate when the gate is pulled down by the feedback diode.
This simulation may help if it gets you confused!
Because it is just an LC oscillator, the working frequency of ZVS can be derived with the parallel resonance formula [image 1]
The fuel tank power factor of the parallel resonant LC oscillator is generally poor, which is no exception.
The cycle tank current may exceed 50A when drawing 8 amps!
This can be a problem if the DC resistance of the load coil is high.
To solve this problem, one may want to use a capacitor larger than the inductor, because the parasitic resistance of the metal polyester capacitor is often smaller than that of the large coil. [See picture 2
Since we have designed CW running on 70 kHz, we need to get the same frequency from This ZVS.
To achieve this with the tank capacitance of 680nF, we need about 7.
The tank has an inductance of 5 μH, or an average ferrite body core has about 5 wires on it.
Since the 5-turn copper wire has a negligible series resistance to a large extent, the I ^ 2r loss in the coil will be minimized.
If the Coil voltage rises to the core enough to saturate the transformer, there may be a problem, but the air gap should solve any problem.
Due to the small number of high voltage transformers produced commercially, x-
The shooting machine must be salvaged or handmade.
Usually the best thing to do is to find an AC anti-excitation transformer and change its core to something more important.
Special attention must be paid to preventing possible saturation at 15 volts per turn;
Select the core with low permeability, large cross-section accumulation and small magnetic track, and then set 0. 5mm air gap. An X-
The optical tube needs a low-voltage, high-current power supply to power its heater;
Something that must be exported from the 14 v bus.
The linear regulator consumes an unacceptable amount of power, so the switch mode regulator must be used.
If the cathode grounding does not require an isolated power supply, a simple Buck topology can be used to provide the required regulated voltage.
The buck converter is the simplest of the switches-Pattern topology.
Basically, the circuit measures the voltage on the capacitor and tries to maintain the set voltage by changing the current supplied to the capacitor.
This is usually done by changing the duty cycle on the fast switch MOSFET.
While this sounds good in theory, in practice, the very high current experienced by the MOSFET increases the loss to an intolerable level.
In the real world, the inductor is placed in series with the MOSFET, more or less "averaging" the current.
However, this solution creates another problem.
A quick interruption of the current of the inductor results in a disruptive high-voltage spike that destroys the MOSFET.
Usually, this problem is solved by reverse-series The diode with the inductor, but this will produce a very damaging circuit.
Instead, the diode is placed in reverse series with the load. Peek at [image 1]
When the switch is off, the current flows through the inductor through the load and the filter capacitor.
When the specified voltage is reached on the capacitor, the switch is on.
The inductor and capacitor then power the load through the schottky diode until the voltage drops enough to make the control circuit turn on the MOSFET again.
This happens thousands of times per second.
Although building a step-down converter with discrete components using the "simple switcher" of the National Semiconductor may be a little cheaper (well, TI now)
Is the most sensible and reliable choice.
The LMZ12003 step-down converter IC is ideal for this work with built-in inductor.
It seems to me that this IC has an average efficiency of 94% in surface mount packages and is a feat of Semiconductor Engineering, no other IC!
Fortunately, there is not much hair traction using the IC, except by setting feedback references by the divider connected to the output.
This feedback PIN is input into the built-in comparator, which is used by the on-board oscillator to set the duty cycle of the MOSFET.
Be sure to put a large TV diode at the output of the IC!
If the device fails short circuit and nothing can suppress the voltage, you burn out the cathode in the Coolidge tube!
The dielectric strength of atmospheric air is 1.
Although Wikipedia thinks 1 million volts per meter.
This is equivalent to 11 kV per cm, or 6 kV with a pointed electrode.
Since reliable insulation of 75 kVusing air requires a distance greater than 10 cm, x-
Compact Light equipment is almost impossible.
Of course, if you don't use insulating oil!
The dielectric strength of most oils is 4 times that of air and eliminates the Crown loss that will occur in the open air design.
That's why almost all x-
The machine insulated all of their high-voltage components with oil and why I and your equipment should do so.
The junction box does a great job of accommodating EHTcomponents pieces. [Image 1]
Show the Coolidge tube of my machine, lead shield, voltage multiplier and the junction box where 1 is located.
Measure the 8 billion ohm resistance of the anode voltage.
90kV this resistance leaks the 50uA required to fully deflate the mirror.
The thickness of the box wall will decay x-
Therefore, it is unlikely that there will be any low energy Ray leakage.
Depending on what you want to do, it may or may not be a problem, but, x-
The energy above 30 Kevin's light can still penetrate this thick plastic. Now that the x-
We need another network to control everything.
Now, this can be as simple as the 555 timer and a few relays, but it won't be very interesting right now, will it? Normally, x.
The operation process of the X-ray machine is as follows: 1.
The technician chooses the exposure time and kVp. 2.
The heater of the tube warms in a short period of time. 3.
Turn on high pressure and turn on x-
A photo of the light was taken.
This is a process that must be copied in mymachine.
The safest and most logical way is to establish the circuit in the micro-controller.
Not only is the micro controller reliable, but it also has the added benefit of allowing for simple modifications later.
That's why I use arduino.
A project doesn't need to look good to run, but making it look good is one of the best parts to build something.
However, to make something look good, one needs to figure out what these things should look like in the first place.
My "stuff" went through several iterations [images 1, 2]
But in the end it's better to put it in a wooden craft box.
I might take a different route if I could use a 3D printer, but alas, all I have at mydisposalis is a shabby CNC machine.
However, it did route the pine forest very well so that my teacher would qualify for this competition :-)
Looks good itself is useless;
The part that makes the project look good should actually do something.
In my case, these parts are the display, the control knob, and the kV/milliamperes.
You may remember that one.
I put the 8 billion ohm resistor in the box full of oil.
When the 90kV is placed on this resistor, the resistor will allow 50uA to pass through, so by connecting the 50uA FSD meter to it, we created a 90,000 V meter.
All that's left to do is make a scale!
More mathematical knowledge is needed to measure anode current.
However, there is no calculus, only Ohm's law.
Let's set some variables before we calculate anything, though.
The meter is a full scale deflection of 100uA and we want it to be 3 mA.
It seems we need a resistor! Look [image 2].
This is the scene we have to create.
However, in order to do this, we must measure the impedance of the mirror.
Ohlemer does a good job in this regard, in which case the impedance of the coil is 5 kiliohms. See [image 3]for the maths!
Now, I'm not going to delve into the actual design of my control box. Why?
Well, it's all boring and won't teach anyone anything new!
I'll give some notes pictures, though, that describe the heart of those who are at least a bit interested. [They are above]X-
The light is invisible, just like the infrared.
Unlike infrared, however, they are very energetic and can stimulate atoms, possibly a bunch of atoms.
What do you get when you have excited atoms? Photons!
Photons with lower energy, what we can see.
We can use this property,
Light fluorescence conversion x-
The light shoots into visible light, allowing us to see the information contained in it.
Normally this is done with the so-called "enhanced screen;
Plastic sheet soaked with x-
Ray-responsive fluorescent body.
The enhanced screen is included in the enhanced box;
X-which house's small light tight folderray film. [Image 1]
You should have a good idea of how these things look.
In this world, many things have different tastes.
Blue, Green, fast, super fast, normal. . .
The ultra-fast screen will provide you with the brightest images to shorten the exposure time.
However, this is not without its decline.
The crystals on these screens must be very large to appear bright;
Large enough to cause the image to be a bit blurry.
The "regular" screen will also produce a clearer image, albeit a darker one. More x-
Then it takes light and longer exposure, but that's the price we pay.
The "Fine" tape will produce very clear images.
Unfortunately, this is also a very blurry image. . .
There are many ways to record x-ray image.
The most traditional method is to put a paper film in the box and then develop it again.
Based on the fact that the film is of course on death row, paper films are still made and purchased by millions of people and will not disappear soon.
Usually people can buy 100 on ebay for about $90;
In fact, the price of considering printing high-quality photos is not too bad. [image 1]
Second, more modern imaging methods
Flat panel detectors will be used for light.
However, these costs are $60,000 per piece. [image2]
The third method is to glue the reinforced screen to the lead glass with tape and then place the digital camera behind it.
Albiet is a bit rough, and the DSLR camera set to a 10 second timer can image the screen well.
Lead glass is a must though, otherwise there will be a storm of noise in your image! [image 3]
If you have extra money, adding an image enhancement tube to the camera will greatly reduce the exposure time.
However, do not buy gen 1 or gen 2 tubes;
They are terrible, Go 3 generations or nothing! [image 4]X-
The light can't bend, reflect or focus like normal light, and there's no way to make the camera blurry, let alone the actual camera that takes X-raysray image.
As a result, the only way to take x
The light image is through the ashadow, or the silhouette process.
Setting for x-is not that difficultray image.
The first step, of course, is to wait until it gets dark outside.
Now, unless you happen to have a clue
In no case will I indulge in indoor photography.
There are too many surfaces for x-
Light reflection, especially if the building of your house is large.
The best place to take a photo is in your backyard and the beam is away from anything that has life.
For example, a few acres of woodland is a good target.
On the other hand, your neighbor's house is not.
That is, unless it is more than 80 yards, the square inverse law reduces the radiation field to zero in this case.
Do not experiment with X
Unless you live in a suburban or rural community.
No, power x-up.
The light tube in the apartment
Now that we have some obstacles, let's go back to still life.
This is not a very complicated science.
All you need to do is set up your x-
The source of the radiation line, the imaging equipment, and the object to be photographed.
The closer you place your object to the source, the greater the magnification.
Similarly, putting it directly in front of the film creates a feeling of near-life --
I hope you designed your x.
There's a machine with an adjustable KV-Peak.
By doing so, you can adjust the contrast of the image.
Higher voltage means higher x-
The energy of the Ray, thus penetrating deeper.
The best way to describe this is to show some images. . . [Image 1]
It is the ray photo of the steel gauge, setting the appropriate kVp for this work.
Note that all meters are visible and lighter et and lighter meters are a bit ugly. [Image 2]
The same meter is displayed, but the kVp is higher.
Now all the meters are lighter except invisible. . . [Image 3]
The same meter is shown again, but this time at the lower kVp.
It's all too dark now. [Image 4]
It's about 28 KVP.
If we can't adjust kVp so low, then the flowers will be completely invisible!
This is the benefit of building your own x-
Not to buy one, but to buy one.
You can adjust the kVp to whatever you want, not just the usual 50 to 75kVp provided by the dental machine. [
X-ray provided by Leslie Wright
That's all about Ray photography!
This is an art, not a science.
Like any art, it takes practice to get good results, so if your first few x-
The light looks terrible.
This is a dangerous art, though, so be careful.
Also, please vote for me :-)