plant plastics seed new tech, from miatas to tea bags - polyethylene terephthalate properties
Jacqueline Conciatore was written,S.
National Science Foundation
She contributed this article to the voice of field science expertsEd & Insights.
Is it not common to hear "paper or plastic?
In the supermarket.
Plastic options are restricted in many jurisdictions.
Hundreds of local governments around the world
Even all countries including China and India
Prohibited or tax extra light
Use plastic bags.
In the United States, more governments enact such restrictions every year as part of a shift from the oil industry to the oil industry. based plastic.
As people pay more and more attention to disposable items in landfill sites (
Or worse, for the open ocean)
With issues related to fossil fuels, businesses of all sizes are moving beyond the "traditional" oil industry
Alternatives extracted from plants, even those synthesized by microorganisms.
Bio-plastic revolution bio-plastic is completely or partially digested by renewable biomass sources such as sugar cane and corn or microorganisms such as yeast.
Some bio-plastics are biodegradable or even compost under appropriate conditions. [
Citizen science aims to clean Pacific plastic
These new, greener ones
From tea bags to 3D print media to medical implants, friendly plastics appear in a wide variety of places.
In Finland, for example, consumers can now buy Lele's carton milk produced in 100% factoriesbased.
In the United States, a small company called Iris Industries uses Kickstarter to work with "Denimite," a marble Blue composite made from a hot-solid resin adhesive that recycles Cowboys and parts of lifebased. And NSF-
The funded Ecovativemakes has a packaging material called Myco foames designed to replace the polystyrene packaging, which is the bane of environmental protection consumers, even though they have purchasedout meals. Bio-
Plastic products are on the rise.
The European bio-plastics market is booming, growing by more than 20% annually.
According to Freedonia, a market research firm, global demand is expected to grow by 19% annually by 2017.
Global production capacity will increase by 400% to 2018, with most bio-plastics produced according to the European bio-plastics (EUBP)
An association representing the interests of European industries.
Packaging used to be, and is still one of the most common uses of bio-plastics, but packaging has also grown in other areas such as textiles and automotive applications.
"From breathable enhanced functional sportswear to fuel production lines, bio-plastics are constantly entering new markets," said Francois de Bi, chairman of EU oil . ". Even sports
The automotive market is optimistic about bio-plastics.
Mazda announced later last year that it will use a new bio-plastic inside (
It's MX5 Miata.
The company said in a press release on December 2014 that the plant
Plastic developed by Mitsubishi Chemical.
Can be dyed, there is a higher-quality, less-
Toxic than traditional paint surfaces.
Also, Ford Motor
In last July it said it would work with Heinz to make plastic with the remaining tomato skins for car wiring brackets and storage boxes.
It's exciting how plastics are the main body of this activity, but most of today's plastics still come from non-renewable resources: crude oil reserves on Earth.
The oil was extracted and sent to the refinery for distillation to obtain an intermediate product called naphtha.
High temperatures help to "crack" naphtha into smaller hydrocarbons such as ethylene and propylene.
These chemicals, combined with the catalyst, are aggregated into chains of many connected molecules-
Plastic materials we know.
Different types of plastics will have different polymer structures and different properties (
Toughness, stiffness, strength, transparency, etc. ).
The manufacturer then purchases these bulk polymer particles, particles or liquids to make plastic of different shapes using processes such as extrusion or injection molding.
Efforts to use alternative, more renewable feed stocks depend on increasing concerns about the health and environmental impact of petrochemical products, as well as a cautious attitude towards reliance on limited fossilsfuel resources. Many petroleum-
Plastic-based plastics will not break down in hundreds or even thousands of yearsthe carbon-
The carbon bond that forms the polymer is durable.
According to US media reportsS.
Environmental Protection Bureau (EPA)
In 2012, the United StatesS.
Nearly 32 million tons of plastic waste were produced, but only 9% of them were recycled for recycling, leaving about 29 million tons.
Most of the rest are piled up, such as ground garbage or ocean.
In addition, oil
Plastic products are related to health problems such as endocrine disorders. research shows that some potentially harmful plastic chemicals accumulate in the human body.
Some governments are promoting global and national biotechnology to grow the next plastic crop stimulus solution
Based on the economy-
Called biological economy
On 2012, the Obama administration released a national bio-economic blueprint calling for increased research and development, technology transfer, training and other measures to promote the National Bio-economy.
Businesses are interested in following this thread
In fact, they may actually be ahead of consumers, some of whom are reluctant to pay extra for green plastic. [
Forging biodegradable plastics with methane and plant waste]
Marc Hillmyer, director of the Center for Sustainable Polymers at the University of Minnesota, said: "Consumers want these materials and they want them to be more sustainable . " (CSP).
"But they usually don't pay.
What we hear from the industry is, "Yes, we obviously have businesses that rely on petrochemical feed stocks, and we obviously want to make a profit in those businesses.
But we also want to be part of the future . "
Nearly 30 company affiliates including 3 m, Ashland, BASF and coca support CSP's work
Henkel, Kimberly-Cola, General Mills
The center's industrial advisory board consists of Clark, Natureworks and Schlumberger. Coca-
Coke is one of the biggest drinks.
Business leader in the field of bio-plastics development, with a recyclable "plant bottle" made partly from PET "(
From sugar cane.
PlantBottle packaging accounts for 30% of the company's North American packaging and 7% worldwide, "making Coca-Cola the world's largest bio-plastic end user," the company said ".
The company also said it wants the bottle 100% made from plants
Plastic by 2020.
Alternative plastics also appear in niche products.
Last year, for example, wine maker Nomacorc released a recyclable cork made from renewable plants --
A Finnish company called Ahlstrom sells tea bags made of lactic acid (PLA)
Bio-plastics extracted from resources such as corn starch and sugar cane are one of the most commonly used bio-plastics.
The cost of green researchers working with businesses is facing the challenge of manufacturing a material that is not only biodegradable and non-toxic, but also at a lower costeffective.
"Many people, including us, are very good at making expensive polymers and helping us advance basic science, but it is not entirely economically feasible," hilemir said . ".
"So, what we really want to emphasize is, with industrial input, how can we do this economically?
"So far, himir and his colleagues have had several successful stories: There are many other challenges in developing new materials and bringing them to market from the lab.
"Our undergraduates, graduate students, and Postdocs often hear [the challenges] from the industry. companies]
"When trying to bring new materials into the market, face it," said Laura Severt, managing director of CSP . ".
"Can it be expanded to industrial processes in an economically viable way?
Can this material be used for existing infrastructure or do we have to build a whole new factory in order to adopt this new technology?
At the end of life . . . . . . Would it do more harm than benefit to introduce it into our recycling process?
"These are tough issues," hillmill said . "
"If it's easy, someone will do it.
He added: "While the polymer industry will not change overnight, change is inevitable in the long run.
Graduate students, postdoctoral researchers and undergraduates. . .
Driven by these principles, they are at the center.
Therefore, it is not difficult for us to convince them that this is what they should do.
They grew up in this world. asking]
How can we make our world more sustainable?
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