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pyromellitic dianhydride (pmda) may cause occupational asthma - plastic foil packaging

by:Cailong     2019-07-01
pyromellitic dianhydride (pmda) may cause occupational asthma  -  plastic foil packaging
Anhydrides is widely used as crossover
For example, the connecting agent in the production of epoxy resin and acrylic resin, as paint and adhesive in plastic products.
It is well known that sensitivity to several hydrogen acids can lead to occupational asthma.
There are signs that the less-known average heat agent Erma (PMDA)
It can cause irritating respiratory symptoms and may lead to asthma.
We reported three workers from plastic foil manufacturing plants who developed asthma when exposed to PMDA during specific inhalation challenges (SIC).
Methods according to the advice of the European Respiratory Society, SIC was performed within 2 days.
Lactose powder is used to control the challenge, and the mixture of 10% PMDA and 90% lactose powder is used in the positive challenge.
Results all cases showed a decrease in 1 m/s forced tidal flow delay (FEV1)
4-12 hours after active challenge
19%, 15% and 16% respectively.
After 21 hours, the fev 1 of a worker fell by 24%.
Discussion of respiratory symptoms after working hours may represent a delay in workrelated asthma.
During the SIC period, three patients developed lower respiratory symptoms and a delay in indicating sensitivity.
The acetic acid of this mechanism
The associated asthma has not yet been well understood.
Anhydrides is a known irritating substance, so it is not possible to rule out the irritating reaction.
The company improved ventilation and strengthened the use of respiratory protection equipment, eventually eliminating PMDA.
Occupational workplace risk identification helps identify exposure.
SIC can contribute to improving working conditions by identifying and identifying asthma in the environment.
Anhydrides is widely used as crossover
For example, the connecting agent in the production of epoxy resin and acrylic resin, as paint and adhesive in plastic products.
It is well known that sensitivity to several hydrogen acids can lead to occupational asthma.
There are signs that the less-known average heat agent Erma (PMDA)
It can cause irritating respiratory symptoms and may lead to asthma.
We reported three workers from plastic foil manufacturing plants who developed asthma when exposed to PMDA during specific inhalation challenges (SIC).
Methods according to the advice of the European Respiratory Society, SIC was performed within 2 days.
Lactose powder is used to control the challenge, and the mixture of 10% PMDA and 90% lactose powder is used in the positive challenge.
Results all cases showed a decrease in 1 m/s forced tidal flow delay (FEV1)
4-12 hours after active challenge
19%, 15% and 16% respectively.
After 21 hours, the fev 1 of a worker fell by 24%.
Discussion of respiratory symptoms after working hours may represent a delay in workrelated asthma.
During the SIC period, three patients developed lower respiratory symptoms and a delay in indicating sensitivity.
The acetic acid of this mechanism
The associated asthma has not yet been well understood.
Anhydrides is a known irritating substance, so it is not possible to rule out the irritating reaction.
The company improved ventilation and strengthened the use of respiratory protection equipment, eventually eliminating PMDA.
Occupational workplace risk identification helps identify exposure.
SIC can contribute to improving working conditions by identifying and identifying asthma in the environment.
What do you already know about this topic?
Average heat agent two Malay (PMDA)
It is one of several highly active acid hydrogen salts.
Exposure to acid anhydrides is known to cause skin irritation, mucosal response, and asthma.
What is the new discovery?
We reported three cases of persistent asthma symptoms associated with PMDA exposure.
Specific inhalation challenges (SIC)
PMDA is considered an asthma patient in all three cases.
SIC is considered as a reference for the diagnosis of asthmamolecular-
Weight material.
How will this affect policy or clinical practice in the foreseeable future?
Clinicians who diagnose and treat asthma should know that PMDA may be exposed to work.
Current cases indicate the importance of considering asthma as a possible delayed work after work --related asthma.
SIC may be useful in identifying causal factors and improving the work environment related to work-related asthma.
Introduction of two Malay thermal average agents (PMDA)
It is one of several highly active acid anhydrides and is widely used in the production of thermoplastic plastic and highly active acid
Performance paint.
2 Anhydrides including PMDA are respiratory stimuli and direct-
Type sensor.
Occupational asthma is associated with a number of anhydrides.
1 3 4 PMDA is also related to occupational asthma.
1 3 5-8 this short report presents three cases of asthma due to PMDA exposure.
Three workers from a plastic foil manufacturing plant were referred to the Department of Occupational Medicine for work reasons
Related respiratory symptoms
Case A is 52-year-old ex-
Smoking male maintenance workers without respiratory symptoms.
He has worked in this factory for 16 years.
Case B is 46-year-old non-
Smoking male operator, working for 4 years under control and monitoring of the extrusion process.
He had no respiratory symptoms before.
Case C is 46-year-old non-
Smoking male electricians have dermatitis and pollen fever when they are children.
He has been employed for 24 years.
PMDA has been used in the plant since 2008 to increase the viscosity of plastic food packaging products used in the food industry.
Initially, the PMDA powder was poured directly into the funnel from the 10 kg bag.
Several years later, to reduce dust exposure, the PMDA bag was opened and added to the industrial glove box.
In 2014, the company launched a new and larger extruder with PMDA added to the extruder
Open the drug delivery system a few meters above the main work area.
In the spring of 2015, the local exhaust ventilation of the new extruder was closed for repair.
During the months following the launch of the new extruder, three employees developed respiratory symptoms, especially during the replacement of filters and compensation.
During these operations, respiratory protection equipment is occasionally used.
Methods initial risk identification was carried out at the time of workplace visits.
Focus on clinical history of personal and occupational risk factors.
Continuous breath peak flow measurements were recorded at work and on weekends.
Medical examination includes chest X
Ray and lung capacity determination using EasyOne lung capacity meter (
Andover ndd Medical Technology, Massachusetts, USA).
A acholine challenge test based on standardized procedures delivered from the nebulizer (Jaeger APS-system)by breath-
The method of activating the dosage meter for increasing the dose.
9 The response to a acholine was measured as an excitation dose that resulted in a 20% decrease in the forced tidal flow of 1 s (FEV1)
With baseline fev (
()
Specific immunoglobulin (Ig)
Common Air allergens and available anhydrides were measured using ThermoFisher's kit.
Specific inhalation challenges (SIC)
SIC is based on the advice of the European Respiratory Society.
Asthma treatment was carefully reduced before the challenge.
SIC was performed in the 7 ymm3 challenge room of the outpatient asthma clinic at Odense University Hospital.
Temperature, carbon dioxide, humidity, air exchange and dust particles (
DustTrakR, TSI, Shoreview, Minnesota, United States of America)were monitored.
Day 1: control the challenge with lactose powder.
The next day: take the initiative to challenge and pour 200g powder (
90% lactose and 10% PMDA)
Back and forth between two pallets.
The dust level is between 0. 8 and 3. 0u2009mg/m3.
After a positive challenge, hospitalized in the pulmonary department.
For the first hour and the additional 10-14 hours thereafter, v1 is frequently registered.
Specific inhalation challenges (SIC)
SIC is based on the advice of the European Respiratory Society.
Asthma treatment was carefully reduced before the challenge.
SIC was performed in the 7 ymm3 challenge room of the outpatient asthma clinic at Odense University Hospital.
Temperature, carbon dioxide, humidity, air exchange and dust particles (
DustTrakR, TSI, Shoreview, Minnesota, United States of America)were monitored.
Day 1: control the challenge with lactose powder.
The next day: take the initiative to challenge and pour 200g powder (
90% lactose and 10% PMDA)
Back and forth between two pallets.
The dust level is between 0. 8 and 3. 0u2009mg/m3.
After a positive challenge, hospitalized in the pulmonary department.
For the first hour and the additional 10-14 hours thereafter, v1 is frequently registered.
As a result, there is no PMDA air measurement in the workplace.
Table 1 summarizes the clinical features of the three cases and their response to SIC. Pre-
The results of the determination of SIC lung capacity were 88%, 69% and 106% of the predicted values, respectively.
Case A has positive specific IgE for three of the five anhydrides.
In the other two cases, the specific IgE of various common air allergens was elevated.
After 6 to 12 hours during the PMDA challenge, fev 1 dropped by 19%, 15% and 16% (see figure 1).
After 21 hours, fev 1 fell by 24% in case B.
Termination of PMDA exposure at the plastic foil manufacturing plant resulted in reduced symptoms and, in both cases, significantly improved lung function.
View this table: View inline View pop-up table 1 Clinical features and responses to SICDownload figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpoint figure 1 during the control and PMDA challenges,
1 Second forced breath flow;
Average heat agent two PMDA.
Current results suggest that PMDA exposure may lead to occupational asthma.
Asthma is associated with a variety of anhydrides.
1 2 4 11 pm da is also related to rhinitis, bleeding rhinitis and excessive airway hyperplasiaresponsiveness.
Limited number of PMDA-3 5-8
The associated asthma symptoms have been described.
A Japanese group reported two cases of occupational asthma caused by PMDA.
A study on workplace challenges showed that a worker had asthma after mixing epoxy and PMDA.
I don't know which component is asthma.
Six studies using airway resistance identified 4 cases of PMDA-related asthma.
5 8 no more common fev 1 drops were used in these studies.
The acetic acid of this mechanism
The associated asthma is unclear.
Antibody-specific IgE antibodies have appeared in some asthma patients, suggesting that IgE is mediated. 8 11 12 Cross-
The reactivity between Anhydrides has been shown.
No business kit for analyzing specific IgE was provided to PMDA.
Of the three cases, only one had a positive specific IgE for possible sensitivity enhancement. Thus, cross-
In these cases, the reactivity with other anhydrides is useless.
During the SIC period, three patients developed lower respiratory symptoms and delayed the decline, prompting allergies.
Anhydrides is also very exciting.
There was no respiratory symptoms during 2-4 SIC, which was contrary to the stimulus response.
In addition, exposure levels during SIC were lower than occupational exposure limit 0 for Danish anhydrides. 4u2009mg/m3 (
Malay.
Therefore, the possibility of stimulating the reaction is small.
Finally, the delay in asthma caused by these challenges further demonstrates the immune response.
Thanks to these results, the company expanded the scope of use of the respirator and improved ventilation.
Finally, the use of PMDA was completely canceled by the factory.
After PMDA elimination, asthma symptoms were reduced in all three cases.
Two of them improved significantly as lung function normalized.
The lung function of case B has not improved, which indicates that PMDA-
The associated asthma may persist.
SIC is useful in the diagnosis of occupational asthma caused by LMW reagents. LMW-
Associated asthma is often delayed and can be identified by SIC.
Therefore, the symptoms after work may be workrelated.
Correct diagnostic work
Related Asthma is very useful in improving the working environment.
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1159/000048172 cases identified by DLS openurlpubmedfootnotescontriators, IRS, JB.
DLS, LRS, JB, ADN and MTM: manage these cases.
DLS, LRS and JB: these cases were examined.
DLS: have an idea for this article.
MTM, DS, LRS, and JB: The work described in this article is reported.
DLS and LRS: the guarantor of this short report.
Funding authors have not announced specific funding for this study from any public, commercial or non-commercial funding agency --for-profit sectors.
No one declared a competitive interest.
Obtain patient consent.
Uncommissioned source and peer review;
External peer review.
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