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synthesis, characterization, and comparison of polyurethane dispersions based on highly versatile anionomer, atbs, and conventional dmpa. - characteristics of polyester

by:Cailong     2019-08-15
synthesis, characterization, and comparison of polyurethane dispersions based on highly versatile anionomer, atbs, and conventional dmpa.  -  characteristics of polyester
Polyurethane Dispersion (PUDs)
It is one of these coatings that comply with strict VOC Regulations.
In this study, PUDs is a highly versatile and detachable anionmer using a new, 2-
2 methyl acrylic
Propionic acid (ATBS)
This is commercially available but has not yet been explored by the paint industry.
By comparing the properties of this newly synthesized PUD and dispersion based on traditional anionomer DMPA, the effect of this new anionomer on the properties of polyurethane resin was evaluated.
Their physical analysis
Chemistry and heat
Mechanical properties show that ATBS-based PUD exhibits better thermal, mechanical, chemical and coating properties than DMPA-based anionomer-based PUD.
Key words moisture dispersion, ATBS, coating, premix introduction of strict EPA regulations and environmental concerns in the eco-industry, resulting in significant changes in the type of coating systems that keep the environment clean
Water-based coatings are one of the main technologies to promote the industry to reduce solvent emissions.
They have been incorporated into complex, very demanding end-uses such as automotive coatings and less demanding general industrial applications.
In recent years, many important progress has been made in polymer skeleton, polymer dispersing agent, polymer thickening agent and polymer colloidal stabilizer.
The Utilization Center of the polymer in the water medium is the fact that certain polar bases are able to give water stability or water dispersion to other water-soluble polymers.
General method of rendering polyurethane (PU)
The dispersion of polymer in water is built in
In the hydrophilic group, it is either ionic or non-ionic.
A commonly used class of water-based PU, which is very important in industry, is ionic, in which the yin type is the main, and the PU Poly has a pendant acid base (anionomer)
Or tertiary amine (cationomer)
Incorporate their backbone.
Before dispersion, these groups were neutralised to form internal salt. (1)
These anion bases have a positive contribution to the mechanical strength and elastic properties of the material.
However, the hydrophilic properties of the ion base make the resistance and solvent of the material poor, resulting in slow evaporation of moisture during drying.
Another drawback of water
The cost of polyurethane is relatively high compared to solventbased products. (2), (3)
One way to improve performance is to form a multi-phase structure in a polyurethane dispersion (PUDs)
By introducing another polymer.
Some examples of this type are described in many technical papers ,(4-7)
The acrylic monomer is combined by free end-to-end polymerization to improve the performance of PUDs.
These acrylic counter parts have special advantages such as low cost, high gloss, good weather resistance, wide glass transition temperature range, good chemical resistance and easy thickening.
So they are the most attractive candidates to be included in the puds. ATBS, 2-acrylamido 2-
Alpha-ring-acid is a non-ionic monomer, which has a wide range of properties in addition to hydrogen.
Bonding Capacity and polyelectrolyte behavior in aqueous solution. (8)
It is a relatively strong acid with wide application (
As acid or salt)
It includes packing film, foam stabilizer, photographic material and water absorbing material.
The polymer of ATBS and acrylic diester is used to make contact lenses, poly (ATBS-graft-styrene)
Self-enhanced gel, soap-in the paint industry-
ATBS as reactive emulsion (9);
Therefore, its behavior in grafting or cross-linking networks with polyester should be of interest.
To illustrate the hydrophilic and ionic properties of ATBS and their effects on PUD performance, azoisobis butyro nitrile (AIBN)
As a radical initiator of Freedom
Therefore, unsaturated polyester and ATBS tend to cross.
Cross-linking may occur by removing one hydrogen atom from one of the chains through high energy radicals.
This leaves a free radical site on the main chain, and the resulting hydrogen atom will abstract another hydrogen atom from the adjacent chain.
The two radical sites left on the adjacent chain can then be regrouped to form the nextsslink. (10)
Therefore, grafting technology has become an important technology to improve the physical and chemical properties of polymer. (11)
The shielding effect due to the unique geminal dimethyl structure of ATBS provides excellent hydrolysis stability for synthetic size polymer resin. (8)
Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to synthesize atbs grafted polyester polyols and to prepare PUD from them.
ATBS-due to synergy-
The improved PUD is expected to demonstrate the advantages of the system, and the presence of sulfuric acid bases will lead to strong Polyelectrolyte properties.
In this study, we tried to introduce ATBS as a potential alternative to DMPA, the ion part commonly used in traditional PUD.
Figure 1 gives the structure of ATBS, and Table 1 records the specific description of the technical parameters.
ATBS to FT-IRand [. sup. 1]H-
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum[
Figure 1 slightly]
Considering the importance and future potential of this relatively new but commercially available monomer in the paint industry, it is highly desirable to better understand its role in PUDs.
Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the thermochemical, mechanical and coating properties of PUD and compare them with the properties of traditional PUD.
Experimental material azelonic acid (AZA)LR (99%)
Malay LR (98%)
, 3, LR (99%)
Three methanol propane (TMP, 98%)
New pentyl glycol (NPG,99%)
The catalyst AIBN was purchased from the United States. d. fine-chem (Mumbai,India).
Dioxic acid (DMPA)(99%)
Isoverone diammonium (IPDI)
Purchased from Aldrich, USA
TMP is vacuum dried at 1 HG and 85 [degrees]
C 5 hours before use. Triethyl amine(TEA)and N-methyl-2-pyrollidinone (NMP)(s. d. fine-chem, India)
More than 3 [Angstrom]
Part of the screen for 7 days.
Ethylene diamine (EDA, 98%)
Purchased from Foka, Switzerland and used without any further purification.
Highly versatile monomer2-acrylamido 2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid (
99% Chinese Academy of Sciences ATBS15214-89-8,)
From Vinati Organics Limited, Mumbai, India, and Catalyst Fascat 4100 (
56 of zhengbei. 85% Sn)
Provided by Tarapur paint and adhesive company in Boisur, India.
The solvent used in the titration is from s. d. fine-chem (Mumbai, India)
More than 3 [dry]Angstrom]
Please use the sieve before use.
KTECH India offers milk oil, Defoamer and biokiller.
Synthesis of polyester polyols (POLY 1)
A kind of polyester polyols (POLY 1)
Alcohol constant ~ 1.
106 mg KOH [oh value]g. sup. -1](Mn = 1050)(12)(ASTM D1957-286)
Propane with azelic acid, shunding benzene, nepentol and trimethanol (
Supporting single unit)
According to the formula given in Table 2.
Resin reactor with thermometer, mechanical mixer, Dean-
In the case of a mole ratio of 0, the stark device and the nitrogen Inlet are charged by diacid, dialcohol and trialcohol. 4:0. 5:0. 08.
Performed in the presence of polyester acatalyst, Fascat 4100 (0.
05 wt % based on the total weight of the monomer)
In the slow [flow]N. sub. 2]
In order to avoid oxidation due to atmospheric oxygen.
The charge was initially heated to 120 [degrees]
C and subsequently increased in small increments of 20 [degrees]
C per hour until finally settled at 180 [degrees]C.
The reaction continued until the acid price dropped to 10 mg KOH [below]g. sup. -1].
When the required acid price is reached, the temperature is reduced to 120 [degrees]
C, the amount of calculation of shunding thin (0. 1 mole)was added.
Charge is heated further to 165 [degrees]
Until the acid price is reduced to 5 mg KOH [g. sup. -1](ASTM D 1639-90).
The progress of the reaction was monitored only from the acid value and the amount of Ester water accumulated during the reaction.
Finally, polyester polyols produced in this way (Fig. 2)
Into a glass.
Plug the bottle and put it into the vacuum dryer before the further reaction starts.
Table 3 shows the properties of newly synthesized polyester polyols (POLY 1). [
Figure 2:
Preparation of polyurethane water dispersion (
Polyurethane (PUD)
A typical shade polyurethane dispersion identified as PUD 1 was prepared by premix method (13)
Synthesis of nco-in two steps-
Assisted in the preparation of the termination pre-polymer and dispersion of the dispersion by introducing a negative Center (Fig. 3).
Table 4 gives the basic formula for pud1.
Preparation of Isocyanate acid by reacting the poly I of the previous step with DMPA dissolved in NMP to terminate the premix (
5 based on total reaction quality)
At 500 ml Four
Neck round bottom flask with mechanical mixer, thermometer, nitrogen Inlet and return condenser.
The mixture is heated on the heating cover of 80 [degrees]
About 30 minutes in a nitrogen atmosphere.
IPDI and catalyst DBTDL (0.
05 wt % based on total solids)
To keep the reaction temperature at 85 [we add it to the flask]degrees]C.
The reaction proceeds until the amount of the residual isocyanate acid base reaches the theoretical end point, calculated on the basis that all oh bases react with isocyanate acid base.
The TheNCO content of premix was determined by the two-matamine Back titration method. (14)
Premix cools to 60 after obtaining the theoretical NCO value [degrees]
C, and add the amount of chemical metering of tea leaves dissolved in NMP, stir for 1 hour to ensure that the carboxylic base of the pre-polymer is completely neutralised.
The resulting polyurethane monomer is then placed in high-
Rapid stirring and desired molecular weight were achieved by adding EDA as achain extender.
Emulsion reagent usol K-For stable dispersion-98 (0.
9% of Total Quality)
Anti-emulsion and biological killing agent (0. 1% of total quality(KTECH, India)
Add to the water dispersion.
The PU dispersion obtained in this way has a solid content of 30 wt %. [
Figure 3 slightly]
Typical procedure for the preparation of acrylic modified aqueouspolyurethane dispersion (MOD 1)
Polyester polyols, add 500 ml Four
Equipped with neck round bottom bottle with the same accessories used in pud preparation.
Then the amount of ATBS and initiator AIBN is calculated (0.
05% weight based on ATBS)
Add to the polyols (Table 4).
The mixture is kept at 80 [degrees]
C lasts for 2 hours when intense stirring and grafting is allowed.
After 2 h, IPDI and catalyst DBTDL (0.
Based on total solids)
Choose wisely from the drop funnel during the cycle of 1. 5 h at 90-95[degrees]
C enter the reactor.
At this temperature, the reaction can continue for 2 hours until isocyanate (NCO)
The content meets expectations.
The NCO content of premix was determined by the two-matamine Back titration method.
The premix obtained from this is cooled to 60 [degrees]
C and the neutral solution of tea dissolved in NMP are fed slowly within 1 hour.
By adding PU premix in high-speed stirring water in ordinary steel reactor for about 15 minutes, the uniform dispersion of PU is obtained.
After dispersion, add a proper amount of EDA to expand the chain reaction.
For stable dispersion, the emulsifier uses K-98 (0.
9% of Total Quality)
Defoaming agent and biological killing agent (0. 1% of total quality)(KTECH, India)
Add to the water dispersion.
Therefore, the PUdispersion obtained has a solid content of 30 wt %.
The modified pud abbreviation is MOD 1.
Figure 1 shows a typical reaction scheme. 4. [
Figure 4 slightly]
The general features of PUD 1 and MOD 1 are discussed in Table 5.
The preparation of the film is by casting the newly synthesized sample at room temperature onto the aTeflon board and then drying at room temperature for 48 hours at 100 [degrees]C for 2 h.
This tendency to dry is only for slow drying.
Solvent ata can also be evaporated at a fixed temperature (
Room temperature or high temperature).
After demoulding, the film is stored in desiccant at room temperature for further study.
Characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR)
Infrared spectrum of polyurethane dispersion (PUD 1)
Polyurethane Dispersion (MOD 1)
It was obtained on Perkin ElmerFT.
Infrared spectrometer using NaCl particles.
In the form of thick syrup, a layer of resin film is cast on the salt block. [. sup. 1]H-NMR [. sup. 1]H-
ATBS and MOD 1 NMR spectra were recorded using aBrucker 300 MHz NMR spectrometer at ambient temperature. DMSO-
D6was is used as a solvent.
Particle size analysis particle size and viscosity are important parameters that determine the final use of water-based PUDs for industrial applications.
Measure granularity using India Malvern Instruments Ltd.
Zetasizer1000 HS type and viscosity of B4 Ford Cup.
All measurements are carried out [25]degrees]C.
Thermal weight analysis (TGA)
The decomposition profile of PUD film samples was subjected to thermal weight analysis using diamond Perkin Elmer analyzer.
Put film samples ranging from 4 to 6 mg into a platinum sample pot and heat them up to 30 to 800 [degrees]C, under [N. sub. 2]
A month of atmospheric heatingrate [degrees]C [min. sup. -1]
And record the weight loss and temperature difference as a function of the temperature.
Differential Scanning heat (DSC)
Analysis of samples measured by differential scanning heat meter glass transition temperature (DSC)
, On NETZSCH DSC200 PC, use aluminum curling pan under [N. sub. 2]flow at 20 mL [min. sup. -1].
To eliminate the thermal history effect of the sample, the temperature is at 150 [balance]degrees]
C. at the beginning of each experiment
Measurements were made between the following two100 and +150[degrees]
C The heating rate is 10 [degrees]C [min. sup. -1].
Morphological attributes (SEM analysis)
The morphology of the broken surface of PUD 1 and MOD 1 was studied by SEM to investigate the compatibility between polyurethane and polypropylene phases.
Mechanical properties apply samples to carbon steel and glass plates previously skimmed using rds usa manufacturing rod coating machine (50 [micro]
Film thickness m).
The coating panel is then allowed to dry at room temperature in a fully ventilated atmosphere and tested after 7 days to ensure full maturity of the coating film.
Pencil hardness and indentation hardness (
By the Coast)
Determined by ASTM336374 and D 2240-86.
Transverse bonding is adopted according to ASTM D3359-
2002 adhesion was studied.
Flexibility is the determination of conicalmandrel (1/4")
Bending test based on astm d 522-939.
The impact resistance is measured on the falling block impact testing machine (
Komar science, India)
According to astm d 2794.
Tensile strength and elongation test on the computerized tensile testing machine "Tensilon (
India R & D electronics company)
According to astm d 638.
The molecular weight of polyester alcohol was evaluated by End-based analysis. (15)
Chemical corrosion resistance test by soaking glass panels (
Thickness of dry film 40 【micro]m)
Conversion to water, acid, and alkali solution according to astm d 1647-89.
To prevent the migration of the edge of the glass, the edge of the glass is coated with wax.
Then dip the panel in the water, 3% (w/w)
Sulfuric acid solution and 3% (w/w)
Sodium hydroxide solution and check for changes in visual appearance after 24 hours.
Solvent resistance is carried out according to the "double" method of using a piece of white cotton cloth (ASTM D 5402-93).
The solvents used are methyl acetate and toluene.
The result is the observation of the minimum number of double wipes that the movie failed or reached 100, which is the maximum number of double wipes performed.
Results and discussion of infrared spectra (IR)
Figure 5 shows the infrared spectra of ATBS, PUD 1, and MOD 1.
In the spectrum of ATBS, bands corresponding to OH-based in hydrochloric acid were found at [2946]cm. sup. -1].
C = C stretch band of Vinylgroup appears at 1614 [cm. sup. -1].
Due to the occurrence of diammonium base in an internal position, a diammonium base was observed near 1373 [cm. sup. -1]region.
Due to the interaction between the in phase and the out phase, the double price of the double-valent methane base was observed [CH. sub. 3]
Bending of two methyl groups attached to a common carbon atom.
Band at [924]cm. sup. -1]
It is due to the swing vibration of methane.
In addition to these typical belts, we also found sulfuric acid ([SO. sub. 2])
Asymmetric and symmetric bands located at 1248 and 1077 [cm. sup. -1]
C = cfrequirement of vinyl group at 978 [respectivelycm. sup. -1].
A sharp band between 1000 and 900 [cm. sup. -1]are due to =C-
Swing in the vinyl group of ATBS. [
Figure 5 Slightly]
In the infrared spectrum of ATBS modified polyurethane dispersion (MOD1)
, The following bands are observed: characteristic bands [NH. sub. 2]at 3357 [cm. sup. -1]
The stretch band of C = O is at 1738 [cm. sup. -1]
, And the asymmetric and symmetric bands [SO. sub. 2]
At1247 and 1058 [1 【cm. sup. -1]
The polymerization reaction of AMPS in Unsaturated Polyester alcohol was confirmed respectively.
At 1170 [the amino absorption of sulfuric acid is strongcm. sup. -1].
Band at2932 and 2859 [cm. sup. -1]
Asymmetric and symmetric stretching patterns that can be attributed [CH. sub. 3]and [CH. sub. 2]
Group separately. Aband at 1547 [cm. sup. -1]
At PUD 1 and 1564 [cm. sup. -1]
In MOD 1, it may be attributed to C-
N stretch and N-
Plane bending vibration H.
Since NCO is not in 2270 [cm. sup. -1]
Confirm the complete transformation of curing agent.
It should be emphasized that since the C = C frequency is 978 [, the effectiveness of the reaction between the monomer can be confirmedcm. sup. -1]
, The characteristic of vinyl monomer, has disappeared, in 1000-900 [cm. sup. -1]
This is due to = C-
Hwaging no longer exists in MOD 1. (8)[. sup. 1]H-
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum [. sup. 1]H-
The NMR spectrum of ATBS shows the following signals: 1. 442 ppm (s, 6H, -2[CH. sub. 3]), 2. 996 ppm (s, 2H, -[CH. sub. 2]), 6. 10ppm (m, 2H, -[CH. sub. 2]), and 8. 2 ppm (s, 1H, NH).
MOD 1 illustrates the peak with chemical deviation 1. 83-1.
88 ppm, corresponding to hydrogen in the main chain. The[CH. sub. 2]
At 3, the base combined with sulfuric acid shows the signal. 8 ppm.
The signal of ATBS vinyl group protons was not detected at 5 th. 3-6.
1 ppm, this confirms the grafting polymerization of vinyl ofATBS on the MOD 1 polyester alcohol skeleton.
Figure 1 shows the average particle size diameter of the average strength of PUD 1 and MOD1.
6a and 6b, it can be seen that the granularity distribution of MOD 1 becomes wider and turns to a larger granularity.
Increase in granularity (Table 5)
Mainly due to the grafting of vinyl groups in the ATBSonto polyester backbone of MOD 1.
Strong static anti-blowing anti-acid root ions ([-SO. sub. 3. sup. -])
May lead to expansion of the network.
As expected, the distribution of particle sizes has widened due to an increase in branch probability. [
Figure 6 slightly]
Viscosity table 5 shows that the viscosity of MOD 1 is much higher than that of pud 1.
The rapid rise in this viscosity may be due to the main chain winding and inter-chain cross-linking in MOD 1 (H-bonds).
The TGA curves of PUD 1 and MOD 1 are shown in thermal reanalysis figure 17.
By using the initial decomposition temperature (IDT)
And the heat index [T. sub. 20](20%)and[T. sub. 50](50%)
Lose weight (Table 6).
Therefore, from the thermal index as the standard of thermal stability, it can be inferred that the atbs modified polyurethane dispersion (MOD 1)
It has higher thermal stability than PUD 1, indicating a synergistic effect.
This behavior can be attributed to a stronger interaction during grafting on the ATBS ontopoly Ester skeleton of MOD 1.
Figure 7 reveals that the thermal degradation of MOD 1 is divided into three stages: Decomposition of amidegroup (
Polyurethane linkage)
The degradation of amino groups and the fracture of polymer skeleton. (16)At 600[degrees]
The residual focus of C and MOD 1 is 10.
2%, while PUD 1 is completely degraded at 600 [degrees]C.
Therefore, it can be concluded that the incorporation of ATBS has a significant effect on the degradation behavior of PUDs. [
Figure 7 Slightly]
The glass transition temperatures of PUD 1 and MOD 1 were determined by DSC analysis to observe the compatibility and interaction between polymers (Table 6).
PUD 1 shows-39. 1[degrees]
C, and MOD 1 has two glass transition temperatures (Fig. 8). The one at -2. 7[degrees]
C corresponds to the flexible segment in polyurethane and the other corresponds to 29. 3[degrees]
C corresponds to the rigid segment in polyurethane, which may be attributed to the micro-phase separation between the flexible segment and the rigid segment.
However, this micro-phase separation helps to improve the mechanical properties of the polyurethane dispersion system. [
Figure 8:
SEM analysis the morphology of the broken surfaces of polyurethane dispersion PUD 1 and MOD 1 was studied using SEM techniques.
The SEM results showed that there was a significant difference in the surface of PUD 1 and MOD 1 (Fig. 9).
Micrograms of MOD 1 clearly demonstrate the presence of a dual phase, which seems to be continuous as well.
However, under the same conditions, homogeneous morphology can be seen in caseof PUD 1.
Therefore, it can be concluded that because of the different monomer in PUD 1 and MOD 1, the different morphology is due to different interactions. [
Figure 9 omitted
Observation of hardness A and pencil hardness (Table 5)
It was confirmed that the hardness of MOD 1 increased compared to PUD 1.
The increase in the hardness of the film is likely due [T. sub. g]of MOD 1 (29. 3[degrees]C)
Cover a wider and higher temperature range than PUD 1.
Therefore, at the measured temperature (27[degrees]C)
A large proportion of the polymer exists in a hard and glass state.
As can be seen from Table 5, both PUD 1 and MOD 1 show good adhesion and flexibility.
The excellent impact resistance of the impact resistance dry film can be attributed to the very tough film produced by PUD 1 and MOD 1.
Toughness is one of the inherent features of vinyl containing acrylic and polyurethane resin (Table 5).
Tensile behavior figure 10 illustrates the tensile behavior of the film obtained from pud 1 and MOD 1.
The tensile strength and fracture elongation were 41, respectively.
The films of PUD 1 and 55 were 58MPa and 530%, respectively.
The films from MOD 1 are 10 MPa and 480% respectively (Table 5). As expected, (17)
The acid strength of the Carboxylate base is weak, resulting in the formation of the weaker physical cross chain in the carboxyl-based disaggregation, and the tensile properties are reduced compared to the sulfonated-based disaggregation. [
Figure 10 slightly]
It is evident from Table 5 that the two coatings performed well in a 3% acid solution.
However, the alkaline resistance enhancement of ATBS modification to PUD 1 was very obvious compared to PUD 1.
As can be seen from Table 5, MOD 1 has better solvent resistance than PUD 1.
This increase in solvent resistance is most likely due to the shielding effect of ATBS geminal dimethyl group, which is used to modify PUD.
Conclusion This study highlights the differences in PUD performance that can be achieved by adding Yin monomer ATBS and DMPA-based conventional PUD. The acrylate-
The grafted PUDexhibited has high alkaline resistance and improves the thermal stability.
The particle size and viscosity of MOD 1 are higher than PUD 1, which confirms the presence of additional cross-link and inter-chain forces in MOD 1.
ATBS-based MOD 1 is significantly enhanced than the mechanical and chemical properties of PUD 1 prepared by DMPA.
Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of ATBSas is a hydrolysis anionomer that can design the most ideal and high-performance pud for specific end-use applications. References (1. )
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The FSCT and OCCA 2009 V. D. Athawale ([? ? ]), M. A.
Department of Chemistry, Chemistry karni, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, mumaru 400 098, India
Email: vilasda @ yahoo
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