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the costly race to replace cfcs - barrier film packaging

by:Cailong     2019-07-13
the costly race to replace cfcs  -  barrier film packaging
Perfect material--
Cheap, non-toxic, non-burning, easy to dispose.
Air conditioning, refrigeration, foam packaging, insulation and solvent for electronic manufacturing (CFCs)
The era of electronics, air conditioning, frozen food and fast food.
Now, an international agreement to phase out the production of fluorine-containing carbon and other ozone --
By 2000, the consumption of chemicals was leading to this ubiquitous substance and forcing one of the most thorough re-processing in American historyS. industry.
This huge step. -
Equivalent to redesigning several major technical achievements over the past few decades-
Could be unprecedented.
The chemical is "at the forefront of many developments that have defined American lifestyles over the past 30 or 40 years," said Kevin Fey of the Responsible CFC Policy Coalition, an industry group.
"To some extent, CFCs may involve up to 3,500 specific applications, both in manufacturing and in operation.
It spans every industry, "said Tony vogenberg, environment manager at DuPont.
Fluorine Chemical Group of America
Consumers may not notice most of the physical changes made due to the removal of fluorine-containing carbon.
Most products that rely on them may look and function as before.
But the price of replacing fluoride with more expensive alternatives may ultimately mean higher prices for cars, appliances and other products that use it.
Elimination of fluoride and other ozone
According to the EPA, between now and 36 billion, the cost of consuming chemicals by switching to alternatives could be as high as $2075.
As a result, companies all over the world-
Including major chemical companies. -
We are scrambling to grab a huge new market. In the mid-
1970, scientists have found that chlorine atoms in fluorine-containing carbon are thinning the ozone layer on Earth.
In the 1980 s, there was scientific evidence that there had been holes in ozone, resulting in an international agreement to phase out fluorine-containing carbon.
As early as the 1970 s, efforts had begun to find alternatives to certain uses of fluorine-containing carbon, when it was banned as propellant in aerosol tanks.
In addition, this chemical is no longer used to make polystyrene cups and "clam shells" boxes that sell fast food.
Although the replacement process will be expensive and arduous, it may generate some unexpected bonuses.
Some industries are forced to re-examine products and processes to enable them to work without fluorine-chloride and are looking for improvements.
Nevertheless, some of the proposed alternatives may have their own unexpected complications.
Some countries may need more energy to produce or use, resulting in an increase in carbon emissions-
Global warming.
At least one result was disappointing in the toxicity test on animals.
A class of potential alternatives-
HCFC hydrogen (HCFCs)--
More stringent scrutiny by environmental activists.
Although they still contain ozone
In comparison with fluorine-containing carbon, chlorine-containing hydrocarbons have less damage to ozone and are considered as transitional alternatives, while industry continues to look for better alternatives.
But, according to the Greens, the rapid increase in ozone destruction may rule out the use of HCFC as widely as possible.
"The schedule is changing because we are constantly learning that the damage caused by fluoride is bigger than we thought two years ago," said David D . "
Doniger, senior lawyer at the environmental organization's natural resources protection committee.
Large quantities of fluorine-containing carbon sold worldwide-2.
2 billion in 1986-
Categories mainly used for air conditioning and refrigeration;
Foam packaging and insulation;
And clean solvent.
The use of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment accounts for about 40% of all fluorine-containing carbon.
However, just saying these three categories does not convey how
Currently, fluorine-containing carbon. They "really {were}
"It's like water," said David R . "
Vice president of environmental and safety engineering At & t, in AT&T, fluorine-chloride carbon is used as a cleaning solvent.
"Without water, how did you walk around and manage the family?
"The National Aeronautics and Space Administration uses 20,000 gallons of fluoride each year to purify the interior of the space shuttle and orbiter and scrub the hardware on the launch pad.
These chemicals are also used for medical services, disinfection and preservation of whole blood, and disinfection of artificial joints, cardiac pacemakers, and other implants.
The market for chemical alternatives to fluorine-containing carbon may be only half of the early ozone market
Chemicals are consumed, according to Fay.
"Better practice of protection and use and how {
This chemical
The use, he said, "helps reduce demand.
For example, fluorine-containing carbon used in air conditioners is now being recycled and recycled, rather than released into the atmosphere, and NASA extracts and Recycles 10,000 gallons from the 20,000 gallons it uses each year.
"It has been recognized that there are richer alternatives than they think, and there are opportunities for alternatives that people may not have considered that may have superior attributes ---
It's not just other alternatives to the chemicals they're replacing, "said John S.
Hoffman, director of the Environmental Protection Agency's global change department.
The CFC has different formulas for different purposes.
For example, carbon fluoride
12 has been used for car air conditioning and household refrigerators, while CFC-
113 is used as a solvent in the electronics industry.
The automotive industry has reached a consensus on replacing the HFCs. 134a for CFC-
Car air conditioning starts next year.
Hydrogen fluoride is hydrogen fluoride. In other areas-
Household refrigerators, for example-
The choice of hard work is not so clear.
Bet on DuPont-
134a will be the preferred replacement for electrical appliance manufacturers, although EPA officials are investigating another chemical HCF-
152a, the same can be done while consuming less power.
DuPont produces competitive chemicals and HFCs-
But questions were raised about its flammable nature.
In order to dramatize this shortcoming, the chemical company produced a video showing the drum of the HFCS
152a exploded after lighting and distributed a German-
Made a video showing the refrigerator exploding in flames.
DuPont, the world's largest manufacturer of fluorine-containing carbon, plans to invest $0. 3 billion this year to develop alternatives to fluorine-containing plants capable of producing up to 34 billion tonnes of HFCs each year --134a.
Ultimately, according to DuPont's Vogelsberg, the appliance manufacturer will decide on a replacement.
Bob Johnson, product evaluation director, refrigeration products, Whirlpool
He said his company had two main candidates to replace the CFC-12.
Both of these require some redesign of the refrigerator to maintain performance, replacing both products to replace the CFC-
Foam used as insulation in the refrigerator.
Johnson said that the biggest problem with these two products replacing the fluorine chloride used in the insulation of the refrigerator is "they are more chemicals than they will replace ".
"The industry uses plastic liners in refrigerators, and new foamer tend to attack those plastic liners," he said . ".
"A big part of the challenge is to modify the foam or the plastic itself to suppress this chemical attack, or, we might use a barrier film to isolate the plastic from the foam.
"In addition to looking for new equipment that uses alternatives to the CFC, industry has to deal with the transformation of old equipment.
"There are about $135 billion worth of fluorine-containing carbon-dependent equipment here, which could be $200 billion worldwide," said DuPont's Vogelsberg . ".
"For large industrial chillers, the service life of such equipment is between 15 and 30 years or more.
"According to EPA and industry officials, one area that is less difficult than expected is the electronics industry.
"In the solvent field, we are not locked in the degree of refrigeration," said Chittick of AT&T . ".
"We don't have a large equipment like a compressor that relies on fluorine-chloride, but we do need to clean.
He said: "At AT&T, the need to eliminate fluorine-containing carbon led the company to look At its processing process to determine why cleaning was needed.
In some areas, AT&T replaced the resin flux used as a circuit board welder with another process that did not require cleaning.
Where cleaning cannot be eliminated, AT&T has replaced the fluorine-containing carbon with a citrus-made material turpines.
However, he said that there are disadvantages to alternatives compared to the industrial perfection of fluorine-containing carbon.
Turpines is flammable.
In addition, its toxicity at high concentrations has not yet been determined, so "we use it with caution," he said . ".
"It's all done under the grand scientific principles of not having a free lunch.
"While it may be expensive to replace fluorine-containing carbon, the cost of doing nothing may include significant damage to human health and the environment ---
Including more skin cancer and cataracts, inhibition of the human and animal immune systems, and an increase in smog.
As a recent report for EPA said: "In regards to ozone consumption and use {the chemicals}
The benefits of managing ozone-consuming chemicals far outweigh costs.
"Nevertheless, Johnson of AT&T said it was difficult to hold up the balance sheet.
Although the company found opportunities and improvements in its search for the elimination of fluoride, "We spent a lot of money getting there and we had to replace a lot of capital equipment.
What is the real cost?
What are the benefits of eliminating ozone-consuming chemicals to the world?
I don't know how to write it on my book.
Looking for alternatives to CFC (
Data in this drawing is not available).
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