weapons of mass destruction handbook - black plastic sheeting
New york-As the United States and its allies continue to fight international terrorist organizations and countries that may support them, there is growing concern that the United States will one day face the threat of weapons of mass destruction.
These weapons include biological, chemical, nuclear and radioactive devices, ranging from silent gas attacks to catastrophic nuclear explosions.
Those who carry out such attacks know that of course thousands of people may die, but their fundamental motivation is to create fear and panic among tens of millions of people.
In the state of the Union address of January.
2003, President Bush directed the FBI, the head of the CIA, the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Defense to develop a Terrorist Threat Integration Center that combines all types of threat information in one location, so "the right people protect our citizens in the right place.
"In order to better promote the threat to the United States to our audience, Fox News has provided this manual of weapons of mass destruction.
The package outlines general threats to biological, chemical, nuclear and radioactive weapons, as well as options for history, proliferation, delivery mechanisms and treatment/prevention of such weapons.
Biology | chemistry | nuclear | radioactivity | others | history of biological warfare: terrorism involving biological weapons-
Known together with chemical weapons as "nuclear weapons for the poor "--
From adding lethal substances to the national food supply to releasing infectious viruses in the air over cities like New York or San Francisco.
The Biological Weapons Convention, which was signed in 1972, prohibits the manufacture, storage and use of biological weapons.
However, several countries continue to develop and study these policies.
Inventory in some countries is missing, as is the case in Iraq.
In 1969, former US president Nixon banned the production and use of biological warfare agents,S.
The Soviet Union's biological weapons program, Biopreparat, continued until the 1990 s.
On January, the United States announced a bioterrorism detection system that will provide early warning if smallpox, anthrax or other deadly bacteria are released into the environment.
The system was tested within 2002 kilometers, including at the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah. On Jan.
On the 28 th, Bush announced that he would ask for $6 billion in the 2004 fiscal year budget to launch the "biological shield project", "a major research and production effort, to ensure effective vaccines and treatments for bioterrorism agents.
Weapons: Anthrax fever, Botox, plague, in Ma poison, smallpox, tuanya and viral bleeding fever are among the best on the list of biological weapons at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, considered the most likely "Class A" weapon to be used in an attack.
Category B weapons are Category 2
The top priorities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, because they are fairly easy to spread, leading to moderate disease and low mortality.
But these weapons need a specific public.
Improved health actions such as diagnostic and testing systems.
These drugs include: Q fever, blue fungus disease, gl grass disease, ric Ma poison, intestinal toxin B, swine fever, food safety threat, water safety threat, Merlot multi-disease, psi grass
The CDC describes "Class C" weapons as "emerging infectious disease threats", which are easily accessible, produced and disseminated and produce high disease and mortality rates.
Including the nipa virus and the Hantan virus.
Other drugs that may be used as weapons in some countries include: huangquilin, mycotoxin of tricholin, a variety
Tuberculosis of medicinal equipment, bacteria such as war fever, scrub rash and typhoid fever, influenza and other viruses, various forms of dengue fever, fungi and protozoans.
Agricultural bioterrorism can cause famine or widespread malnutrition.
These include feet. and-
There are foot-and-mouth disease, mad cow disease, swine fever, wheat canarbont.
Delivery System: biological weapons can be atomization, which means they can easily spread into the air and be sucked in by humans.
These weapons can also be put into food or water supply where they are ingested.
Many people can also cause harm if they touch human skin.
Symptoms: symptoms include flu
Such as symptoms, fatigue, pneumonia, weight loss, stomach pain, diarrhea, respiratory failure, shock, etc.
Treatment: it usually takes weeks or months for biological weapons to cause death.
Public health systems often do not detect bioterrorism immediately, as symptoms often reflect symptoms shown by patients with a cold or flu.
Treatments include antidote, antibiotics, vaccines, and gastric pumps.
Who owns it: Russia, as we all know, has a stock of all kinds of biological weapons.
The United States studies substances such as anthrax in the laboratory.
Iraq, North Korea and Syria are the few countries considered to still have biological weapons.
History of chemical warfare: for the first time in modern times, Germany used chemical weapons on a large scale.
On 1915, a large-scale gas attack on the French army was carried out on the irpur battlefield.
Allies responded with their own chemical weapons.
By the end of the war, chemical warfare caused more than 1 million casualties, of which about 90,000 were killed.
During World War II, the Germans used hydrogen ammonia and carbon monoxide to kill millions of people in the extinction camp.
During the Vietnam War, the United States used tear gas and several anti-inflammatory agents, including orange.
1925 The Geneva Protocol prohibits "the use of choking, toxic or other gases and bacterial methods of warfare in War ".
But it does not prohibit the manufacture and storage of these weapons.
The protocol was ratified by some 40 countries.
In 1993, more than 140 countries signed the Chemical Weapons Convention against the development, production and possession of chemical weapons.
Nevertheless, some countries believe in the possession of these weapons.
Chemical agents are classified according to the symptoms they cause, such as blisters and nerve agents.
Weapons: mustard, sarin (GB), VX, soman (GD)and tabun.
Other forms of chemical preparations include: blood preparations, including cyanide, arsine, blue chloride and hydrogen chloride;
Choking agents such as chlorine, double light gas and light gas;
Other nerve drugs;
Mustard, B-chlorine, mustard after distillation-
Lewisite mixture and form of nitrogen mustard.
There are also "harassment agents" such as Riot chemicals and vomiting agents ".
Toxic weapons are made of ready-made materials used in various industrial activities.
The most common types of hazardous materials used in toxic weapons are irritating substances, choking agents, flammable industrial gases, water supply contaminants, oxidation devices, chemical suffocation, combustion gases and liquids, there are opportunities for pesticides and industrial compounds.
Various forms of toxic waste such as oil leaks, smoke, garbage, sewage and medical waste can also be used for toxic warfare.
Toxic wars have been used frequently in recent years.
Delivery System: skin contact, inhalation or eye contact is a possible delivery system.
Chemicals can also be deployed through commercial hand-held agricultural sprayers, crop sprayers, spray tanks on aircraft or ships, gravity bombs or ammunition delivered by warheads on ballistic missiles or cruise missiles.
Pollution of water and food is also possible.
There is also a simple delivery system that opens a container filled with hazardous chemicals in crowded areas, such as city subways.
Symptoms: symptoms may include burns or blistering of the skin and eyes, cough, respiratory disease, dizziness, nausea, drowsiness, headache, twitching, involuntary defecation and urination, convulsions, water
Like blisters, the pupil of the eye is too contracted.
Indicators of possible chemical events include: Many dead insects and animals in the region;
A large number of casualties shortly after the attack;
Many surfaces with oil drops or film;
Change color or wither of trees, shrubs, grain crops or lawns;
From fruity to floral notes to spicy or spicy garlic or sunflower notes, bitter almond or peach notes, and the smell of hay, these can't be explained.
Treatment: methods used to relieve pain include antibiotics, antidote, painkillers, skin burn dressings, eye and skin flushing, and scrubbing the skin with bleach or other household cleaners.
Al-Qaida terrorist groups are reportedly trying to make all kinds of chemical weapons.
Stocks are known in Russia and the United States.
It is also believed that countries such as India, South Korea and Syria also have a variety of nerve drugs.
It is not clear how these countries can ensure these supplies.
These weapons are attractive to terrorist organizations because they are readily available and the parts that make them are usually legal and cheap.
Therefore, many military and terrorist experts believe that there will be an increasing trend towards the use of such weapons.
History of nuclear war: devastating and long term nuclear weapons
Long-term effects on human and animal life and the environment in which they live.
These are the most difficult to make in all types of weapons, because the key nuclear elements --
Plutonium and/or highly enriched uranium-
It's hard to buy and expensive.
In 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending World War II.
The Soviet Union became the next country to develop nuclear weapons, triggering an arms race and a global interest in nuclear fission devices.
Traditional nuclear weapons are not the only threat.
Officials fear terrorists may also target nuclear and nuclear power plants around the world. One worst-
Case Scenario simulation estimate 1-
Millions of tons of explosions in Detroit
Equivalent to tons of TNT-
Can Kill 250,000 people, damage more half and all buildings in 1 flat. 7-mile radius.
Decades of arms control negotiations have significantly reduced the number of nuclear weapons worldwide.
Since 1991, the United StatesS. Nunn-
The Lugar cooperation threat reduction program has deactivated 6,032 nuclear warheads and destroyed 491 ballistic missiles, 438 ballistic missile launch Wells, 101 bombers and 365 submarines.
Launch missiles, 408 submarine-launched missile launchers and 25 strategic missile submarines.
It has closed 194 nuclear test tunnels.
In May 1, 2000, five nuclear-weapon States
China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United StatesS. —issued a 23-
The joint statement promised "a clear commitment to the ultimate goal of complete disarmament under strict and effective international control ".
However, other states known or believed to have nuclear weapons have not signed such agreements.
They include India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea.
Weapons: atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs, "loose nuclear weapons" and "suitcase" bomb delivery systems: these weapons are most likely to be delivered in the form of ballistic missiles or bombs dropped by flightover bombers.
Terrorists may also cause accidents involving nuclear power plants, hospitals, nuclear medical machines and vehicles transporting nuclear waste.
However, the actual size of nuclear weapons can be quite small and can be easily installed on large cars or trucks.
This raises concerns among many experts that nuclear warheads could be pushed into big cities by terrorists and detonated by suicide bombers or remote control.
Symptoms: if people do not die because of the initial effects of the explosion, the victim may experience vomiting, headache, fatigue, weakness, heat burns depending on the radiation dose received
Such as skin effects, secondary infections, repeated bleeding and hair loss and long periods of time
Long-term effects such as cancer or birth defects.
Treatment: The clothes should be taken off immediately and sealed in a closed container.
Victims should wash themselves thoroughly with soap and water or bleach if necessary.
Treatment can also include a gastric pump, a laxative, and various substances given to the patient to reduce the absorption of radiation by the body's cells and tissues.
The World Health Organization: The United States has 12,500 nuclear weapons and 103 power plants.
There is a similar supply in Russia.
The United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency oversees 900 of the world's nuclear facilities.
Both Pakistan and India detonated nuclear devices in the test blast.
Israel and North Korea are believed to have nuclear weapons.
Nuclear weapons remain a proliferation issue, particularly when North Korea recently announced the continuation of its nuclear weapons program and withdrew from the international Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
One of the concerns of the United States is not that North Korea will use its own weapons, but that it will not hesitate to sell them to the highest bidder, whether the bidder is a country like Iraq that supports terrorism or a country like Al-Qaeda.
History of the radioactive war: radioactive weapons are considered by many to be a possible option for terrorists.
Unlike nuclear weapons, they spread radioactive substances that pollute equipment, facilities, land and act as toxic chemicals that may be harmful and in some cases
"Dirty bomb" is a possible option for terrorists to kill or harm people by exposing them to radioactive materials such as caesium137, iridium-192 or cobalt-60.
Atomic experts say a dirty bomb with 1 kg plutonium exploded at the center of the German bull market, which could eventually lead to 120 cancer cases.
Weapons: "dirty bomb" carrying system: Methods for detonated dirty bombs include devices-
Like bombs or shells.
Used to disperse harmful radioactive substances.
Such weapons can be used to pollute livestock, fish and food crops.
Most Radioactive substances are not soluble in water, which in fact excludes the possibility of terrorists polluting reservoirs or other water supplies.
Terrorists can launch a systematic attack on nuclear power plants by discharging or overloading reactors, making them radioactive weapons.
A suspicious container may display a radiation symbol.
Symptoms: symptoms can change from minor effects such as red skin, cancer and death.
Acute radiation syndrome
It is usually caused when a person receives high doses of radiation within a few minutes and may cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea;
Later, bone marrow failure can lead to weight loss, loss of appetite, flu
Like symptoms, infections and bleeding.
One should suspect materials that emit heat that do not appear to have any indication of an external heat source, as well as any glowing material or particles.
The glow indicates a strong radioactive emission.
Treatment: radiation victims should take off their clothes and wash themselves with soap and water
Use bleach if necessary.
Hospital staff will provide treatment based on the amount of radiation received.
Iraq and al-Qaida are just two countries and/or terrorist organizations that are considered to have dirty bombs.
However, almost every country has the materials to make them.
Unsafe nuclear facilities around the world have exacerbated the problem.
There are all kinds of weapons-
Many of them are still under development.
This may not be in the category of "bio", "chemical", "Radioactive" or "nuclear weapons. "Weapons:"E-
"Bomb" delivery system: an "electronic"
The bomb "is likely to be launched from long term through unmanned cruise missiles
Range 155mm artillery or MLRS rocket launcher. Symptoms:An E-
The bomb knocked out the electronic equipment and communication system and melted or fused the wires together.
Home computers or personal digital assistants will be enthusiastic and their data will be destroyed.
The lights will flash and the phone will be disrupted.
If a person is taller-
He or she may suffer from severe burns or brain damage and is close to electrical equipment or has a pacemaker.
Treatment: burns or other injuries, humans will be treated as needed.
Who owns it: the US may try to use email
If a war is launched against Iraq, a bomb will be used to catch the airwaves in Iraq. The e-
The bomb will destroy Saddam's ability to communicate with his army and the Iraqi people.
What to do in the case of a biological or chemical attack: In the case of a biological or chemical attack, listen to your radio and listen to the authorities for instructions on whether to stay inside or evacuate.
If instructed to stay indoors, close all ventilation and seek shelter in the internal room, preferably in a room without a window.
Seal the room with plastic cloth and tape.
Stay in the protected area where toxic steam is reduced or eliminated and bring the battery
Operate the radio with you
If you have symptoms of contact, see a doctor immediately.
Pay close attention to all official warnings and instructions on how to proceed.
If exposed, remove the clothes, seal them in plastic bags and wash them off immediately with soapy water.
For more information, please visit the CDC websitebt. cdc. gov.
If you believe that you have been exposed to biological or chemical substances, or if you believe that an intentional biological threat will occur or is occurring, please contact the local health department and/or the local police or other law enforcement agencies.
For more information on how to respond to an attack, please consult FEMA's "Are you ready ? "?
Guide to citizen preparation for national and local health sector information: www. cdc. gov/other.
Htmstates health bureau contact directory: www.
Please visit www for the problem of smallpox. bt. cdc.
Or call the CDC public response hotline (888)246-2675 (English), (888)246-2857 (Español), or (866)874-2646 (TTY).
Contact person used by state and local health officials and health care providers: CDC Emergency Response Hotline (24 hours)770-488-
7100, program Questions: 404-639-0385.
In the case of nuclear or radioactive attacks: if there is a threat of nuclear or radioactive attacks, people living around potential targets such as military bases and chemical factories may be advised to evacuate.
To prevent radioactive dust, it is necessary to take refuge in the underground area or in the middle of a large building.
The blast shelter provided some protection but could not bear the direct blow of a nuclear explosion.
A dust shelter can be any protected space where walls and roofs are thick enough and dense enough to absorb radiation.
The longer the distance and time between you and the radiation particles, the better.
Some radiation shelters are designated by yellow and black sanctuary signs, although many were demolished at the end of the Cold War.
Don't look at flashes or fireballs during a nuclear attack.
Hide as soon as possible-
Underground, if possible.
Stay there unless otherwise directed.
If you can't get into the building, cover the back of anything, lay flat on the ground and cover your head.
In about 20 minutes after the explosion, the aftermath may not arrive, but it can carry hundreds of miles through the wind, so look for a shelter, provide strong protection for harmful substances away from the detonation device.
After a radioactive or nuclear attack, people should not leave their homes until officials say so.
Depending on the level of contamination, your stay can range from one day to two weeks and four weeks.
People allowed to come out of the hiding place may be evacuated to unaffected areas within a few days.
While hiding, people are encouraged to use water and food with caution and to work with shelter managers.
Before returning home within the range of bomb blast waves, check for signs of crash or damage before entering.
Clean up spilled drugs, medicines or flammable materials immediately.
Listen to your battery-
Electric Radio for instructions and information on community services.
Do not re-open the gas at home and only re-open the water after you are sure that the water system is working properly and is not contaminated.
Stay away from damaged areas and areas marked "radiation hazard" or "HAZMAT.
For more information on how to respond to an attack, please consult FEMA's "Are you ready ? "?
For more information about radiation, please visit www. cdc.
The Red Cross also provides information on how citizens are prepared for terrorist attacks. redcross.
Organization/service/disaster/maintenance security/accident. html.
Emergency Alert System: in an emergency situation, such as a type of terrorist attack, state or local emergency response officials will issue an emergency alert system message to local media about what actions citizens should take.
An emergency broadcasting system was used for this purpose.
In the event of natural disasters, spills of hazardous substances and similar emergencies, the system is used almost daily by local officials.
The federal emergency response authority can start the national emergency warning system in the direction of the White House.
This will result in sending emergency messages to the national radio network, from the coast to the coast.
This message is then filtered to smaller radio, television and cable stations.
This system has never been used.
Institute of Radiation Biology, armed forces
Bioterrorism: A Reporter's guide to reporting bioterrorism, radio and television news director Foundation
Carnegie Foundation for International Peace
Defense Information Center-
Non-Proliferation Research Center-
Center for Strategic and International Studies-
Central Intelligence Agency;
Handbook of chemical/biological/radiation accidents, October. 1998 -
Committee on Foreign Relations
Bureau of Defense Threat Reduction
Federal scientists of the United States
National Commission for Radiation Protection and Measurement
Nuclear Threat Initiative
Professor Richard Miller's nuclear weapons Foundation
The famous Journal of Mechanics. 2001 -
"Radioactive weapons as a means of attack" by Anthony H.
Report by RAND entitled "strategic assessment; U. S.
In the 21 st century, "combating weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles "--
United Nations International Atomic Energy AgencyU. S.
Army Institute of Infectious DiseasesU. S.
Army soldiers and biochemistry commandU. S.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-U. S.
Environmental Protection BureauU. S.
Nuclear Regulatory CommissionGlobalSecurity.