what is glitter? - holographic plastic film
Every December, surrounded by white snowflakes, bright red cranberries and green pine forests, recapturing ancestral territory from the country's living room and hotel lobby and seeing the true omen of the holiday, both children and adults are happy: Aluminum-metal polybendiester.
The aluminum-metal polyester hangs over the shop window like a dazzling Frost.
On the nails of young women, it flashes like hot molten gold.
It sparkles like pure precision
Cut the stars on the decorations of a North American brown bear driving a car dragging a camper.
In fact, in the groundbreaking Christmas Eve poem by Clement Clark Moore, St. Nicholas's own eyes are said to be flashing like aluminum-metal polybendiester (
In homes, shopping malls, schools, synagogue, banks, hospitals, fire stations, hardware stores, breweries, car dealers, and various offices --
Outside those places. it shines. It glitters. It is glitter. What is flash?
The simplest answer will make you a little unhappy, but at least you have confidence in a complete understanding of basic physical properties.
Flash powder is made of flash powder.
A large flash produces a smaller flash;
The smaller flash is everywhere, and all the flash cannot be removed;
Don't ask this question again now.
Ah, but if you're like an offensive child pursuing the Santa Claus night interstate travel logistics schedule, ask for a more detailed definition --
Warning: The road to enlightenment is full of trade secrets, steam, aluminum ingotsI. A.
Degree of Blur, an invisible area of the visible spectrum, expressed as "10-
Six metres, "and New Jersey.
Humans, people who don't even like flash, like flash.
We are attracted to shiny things, just as our ancestors were conquered by the impulse to find honey.
A popular theory in research psychologists (
Partially supported by a study that monitors the passion of babies licking plates with smooth finishes)
Our appeal to shine stems from the innate need to find fresh water.
Flash as touchable product-
Or more correctly, the combination of touchable products (
"Glitter" is a term of quality;
Specifically, it's a granular aggregate, like "rice)—
It was the invention that was only recently defined.
The Oxford Dictionary of English focuses on interpreting flash as an invisible flash.
Before the invention of modern craft materials in the 20 th century, one can observe the flash of something (
Flash of Glass)
Or holding something sparkling (
For example, grind the glass).
Metal foil, which has been around for centuries, does not become sparkling when cut into small pieces.
It turns into "metal foil.
"The tiny, shiny, decorative flash particles we are familiar with today are widely believed to have originated from a farm in New Jersey in the 1930 s, when a German immigrant invented a machine to cut the scrap into very small pieces. (
Strangely, it was not until 1961 that he began to patent machines that cut the foil into what he called "flakes. )
The specific events that lead to the initial dispersion of the flash are vague;
All of a sudden, it's everywhere in the fashion that really shines.
An article by The Times on December 1942
It may be the first time this newspaper mentioned these things.
New York City residents are advised that Evergreen Branch pitchers placed in windows during the winter holidays will provide "extra flickering" if "a dime is sprinkled --
Physical store 'Glitter 'or mica.
"The contestants will replace the Christmas candles, which the wartime Army banned after sunset --
In addition to the neon lights in Times Square and the light from the torch of the Statue of Liberty --
After determining that the light of the night turns the Allied ships of the sea into silhouettes, turn them into floating U-boat targets.
Most of the flash of decorative American designer products was made in one of two places: the first in New Jersey and the second in New Jersey.
First, the rumored glitter invented the farm and refused to answer any of my questions.
"We are a very private company," a representative said via email . ".
The second is Glitterex.
Glitterex was established in 1963.
Babu Shetty, 69, joined the company as President and ceo. E. O.
In the 1999 S, although he has been working on making some sparkling products since the 1970 s, when he came to the United States. S.
Get a senior degree from Mumbai. His Ph. D.
Engaged in polymer science and engineering.
He joked that he was stuck in the plastic industry because it was recommended to Dustin Hoffman for his role in graduate.
He also didn't want me to visit his flash factory. The jovial Mr.
Shetty told me on the phone that people don't know the scientific knowledge needed to produce flash powder, flash powder for flash powder --
Manufacturing technology is one of the most advanced technology in the world, people don't believe how complicated it is, he doesn't allow me to see the flash is made, he doesn't let me hear the flash, I can't even be on the wing of the same building as the room that made the Flash in any case, even the customers of Glitterex are not allowed to see their flash made, he will not disclose the identity of the Glitterex customer (
Including some of the world's largest multinationals;
In the end, someone agreed to be named: Thank you. )
OK, welcome me to the Glitterex HQ to learn more about things I can't get to know in person.
The flash factory is located in a beige commercial park and is only a short walk from the office of a company that makes sidewalks for airports and nut factories.
In the glittering foyer, a glass display cabinet flashes --
I agree that there are enough products that are not described, or even vaguely described.
In addition to the display, there are few other indications of the glorious purpose of the building.
That is, until a person enters the bottling warehouse, the warehouse looks like an industrial manufacturing plant that is colonised by pixels.
The concrete floor was painted with moonlight that seemed to be crushed.
The forklift is flashing with shiny crimson spots.
The metal coil of the conveyor belt shines with the rainbow shell.
However, the impression of the space is neat and comfortable
Sweep, if the surface soil of the grassland is colored, it is like a kitchen with a dust bowl.
Near the entrance, a metal shelf higher than a person is filled with more than 1,000 giant pots of glitter samples arranged by recipes, colors and sizes: emerald Heart, pewter Diamond, seems to be a sample of the night sky collected over the Atlantic Ocean.
There are neon flashes, so pink, you 've only seen them in dreams, and rainbow shades are all the colors of cloves and mint and fire at the same time.
On a shelf, hundreds of rainbow-colored white pots sparkled.
The most beautiful color is slightly purple.
My guide in the Kingdom of glitter is Lauren Dale, manager of Glitterex, and Jette Shetty, who works with his father.
The biggest seller is always silver, they told me.
They opened a few jars so I could compare the different silverby-
One side: silver and silver with the power of the thousand suns shining.
I met the old man.
Shetty is in a conference room in front of the office, where, under a sparkling silhouette --
Front style wall
9/11 New York City skyline, he easily browsed several advanced textbooks on chemical engineering, trying to tell me what was shining.
"This polyester film," he began to pick up a transparent material about 5 inch wide, "and one might know it was Mela.
It is the same polymer used in water bottles, so F. D. A. -approved.
If you cut this, you will get a clear flash.
Most of the Glitterex glitter is made of plastic, although some varieties come from other sources such as aluminum.
A clear flash looks like a fragment of a dead jellyfish.
"Then," he said, "We go into the next iteration of the substrate where the transparent film is metallized.
He picked up a shiny silver material.
"The potato chip bag starts with the same polyester film;
It's made of aluminum.
He explained that metalization is the process of depositing aluminum on both sides of the film.
This makes sense in theory, but without at least some clear tape, how can aluminum never become on film?
"They evaporated and deposited the aluminum on it . "Shetty.
This makes sense in theory, but how can aluminum evaporate?
"This is a very, very thin layer.
They put it in the vacuum chamber and then evaporated the aluminum . "Shetty.
"It's too hot," added his son . "
"What did they evaporate from the inside? ” I asked.
"Aluminum . "Shetty.
I don't know how humans know how to do this or why they think of trying it, but it sounds expensive.
Of course, the main function of the flash is aesthetic;
The existence of the flash is to put a flash on something that does not flash: popsicles, irises filled with animals; Newt Gingrich.
At 2011, at that time
The presidential candidate is the first prominent target of the "flash bomb" protest. year-
An old activist named Nick Espinosa poured rainbow sparks on him at a signing event. It was not Mr.
Espinosa uses the quantity of quality for the first time to illustrate the problem;
A year ago, he threw 2,000 p in front of the Republican candidate for governor to protest against lowering the Minnesota minimum wage.
Strictly speaking, it may not be a real flash either --bombing —
At that time, the news media published a photo of the gentleman.
Espinosa holds up a bag of shiny party scraps
But the concept has persisted.
There are several ways to achieve a rainbow effect on a single flash particle, which is very useful for politics.
Holographic flash is made by empressing fine patterns on the film so that the surface reflects light of different colors in different directions
There's no rainbow in nature-
In contrast to a more subtle rainbow-colored flash, this flash reveals a variety of luminous colors based on the viewing angle and is made from a multi-layer transparent film composed of polymers with different refractive indexes.
How many layers are the layers?
233 . "
Shetty, he grinned as he waved an almost invisible plastic sheet.
"This is very technical," he warned . "
"You know, the visible spectrum and so on.
I nodded, indicating that I followed.
"Each layer is half the wavelength of light," he said . "“WHAT? ” I wailed.
If you want to make a cool color, the color you choose is almost always the color that the human brain can handle.
The color of the visible spectrum arranged from the longest to the shortest wavelength is red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, purple.
How do we see them?
The cones in our eyeballs
What is detected by cone cells?
Light with a wavelength between 400 and 700 nm.
How long is the Nano?
The width of human hair is about 80,000 to 100,000.
What is perfect to say to break my fragile sanity?
"More than 230 nanometers per layer," he said . "Shetty.
Because the red wavelength is the longest, the layer of the red rainbow color film is the thickest;
The thinnest is the purple rainbow color layer. Mr.
Shetty began to tilt the transparent film back.
"That's red," he said, as it flashed red.
He continued to tilt.
"At some point it turns green," he says, just as the movie flashes green, then blue, and then purple.
He picked up another transparent sheet and began to tilt.
This one skips the red and green, starts with the blue flash, then moves to the purple and then is clearly visible again.
"What happened under the Violet is ultraviolet rays," he said . ".
"You can't see it.
"So the animals will see what I can't see there? ” I asked.
"If it can be seen in the UV range, yes," he said . ".
The difference in the thickness of the rainbow-colored film strip is imperceptible through touch.
Of course, there are other more obvious size differences.
Process flash is the thickest and least advanced technology. (
Remove it, sir.
Shetty recommends soap and water or fabric softener sheets to counter the static attachment of the plastic. )
The best cosmetic glitter is used in products designed for lips.
It's impossible to recreate light.
Capture the flash effect without using tiny particles, which means that if an object looks sparkling when it is carefully checked (
Credit card design; an N. F. L. helmet;
A ski painting job)
It has a great possibility of flash.
Researchers and zoo administrators sometimes mix flash with animal feed to track animals (polar bears; elephants; domestic cats)
Through sparkling feces.
Plywood Manufacturers insert hidden colored flash layers into their products to prevent counterfeiting.
Because the flash is difficult to completely remove from the area where it was introduced, and because it is possible to distinguish the various varieties under a microscope, it can serve as useful evidence of the crime scene;
F a few years agoB. I.
Contacted Glitterex to classify the samples of its products.
Ordinary Americans say.
Shetty sees flash every day
Most of them are hexagonal.
The smallest flash of Glitterex is 50 by 75 microns (
Micron is one in ten millimeters).
The minimum order size the company will fill in is enough to provide sparks for "half a million bottles" of nail polish
Estimate by Shetty (10 pounds).
Prices vary depending on the size of the particles, the formula and combination of the polymer involved, but at the high end --
That is to say, the smaller end-a 10-
A pound of glitter plastic bags costs about $1,000.
The company offers more than 10,000 varieties.
It's all very blunt, but it doesn't explain the oppressive secrecy that seems to have penetrated the Flash industry.
Is Glitterex worried that I will describe its equipment so accurately that readers may build their own machines to produce their own flash in bulk? Mr.
Leaving aside business secrets, secrecy is a top priority, says Shetty.
Customer demand declined.
Companies don't want other people in their industry to know what flash is in their products to prevent competitors from producing the same formula. When I asked her
If she could tell me which industry is the biggest market for Glitterex, her answer would be: "No, I absolutely know I can't.
I was taken aback.
"But do you know what it is?
"Oh God, yes," she said, laughing.
"You can never guess.
Let's just do that.
I asked her if she could tell me why she couldn't tell me.
"Because they don't want anyone to know it's shining.
"If I look at it, I don't know it's sparkling?
"No, it's not true.
"Can I see the flash ? "
"Oh, you can see something. But it’s —yeah, I can’t.
"I asked her if she would tell me from the record. She would not.
I asked her if she would tell me the record after the article was published. She would not.
I told her I couldn't die without knowing it.
She took me to car grade paint.
There is good news for people who like Flash: all the modern plastic flash that has ever been created is still with us.
According to the doctor
Victoria Miller, professor of materials science and engineering at North Carolina State University, it takes about 1,000 years to make most of the shiny plastic film to be completely biodegradable on Earth.
Because the length of each particle is less than 5mm, plastic flash belongs to the definition of micro-plastic by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration --
A class of materials that have recently become the focus of environmental publicity. (
In 2015, for example, President Obama signed a bill banning the flushing of plastic beads. off cosmetics. )
Although this study concludes that the world's oceans are cold dishes for human beings --
The impact of their existence is not fully understood.
The NOAA's "Sea Facts" page warns that these particles "pose a potential threat to aquatic organisms" but "have little knowledge of microplastics and their effects.
This is a more fundamental question.
Like all plastics, Miller said: "Flash is an oil product.
It comes directly from fossil fuels, which are a very limited resource and we are using them to make something completely disposable. ” (
The sparkling effect also has a natural source, just like a substance used in many cosmetics-the cloud powder.
It is mostly harvested by children from India, often illegal mines. )In short, Dr.
Miller insisted that Flash was "bad" for the environment, but she did not advocate a ban.
"I think we have more important things to do," she said . "
So: what is the flash?
Human manipulation of the inherent desires of fresh water.
An invisible light effect.
Most of them are plastic, often from New Jersey.
However, it turns out that it is not a one-off in the true sense.
A way to make a long winter night a little brighter, though there are Germans at sea.
The inside of the potato chip bag meets the northern lights.
I asked Jeet and Babu to answer this question.
"I would say they are small decorative particles," said Jeet . ".
"But this is not correct because there are other small decorative particles.
His father's answer was simpler: "Because we are a flash manufacturer, everything we do now is called 'flash '.
So that's what it is.
Note: The photographer uses the lens filter to create a burst effect on these images.